Respiratory System** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System** Deck (69):
1

Smallest conducting respiratory passageways

Bronchioles

2

Separates the oral and nasal cavities

Palate

3

Major nerve that stimulates the diaphragm

Phrenic nerve

4

Food passageway posterior to the trachea

Esophagus

5

Closes off the larynx during swallowing

Epiglottis

6

Windpipe

Trachea

7

Actual site of gas exchange

Alveoli

8

Pleural layer covering the thorax walls

Parietal pleura

9

Pleural layer covering the lungs

Visceral pleura

10

Lumen of the larynx

Glottis

11

Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area

Conchae

12

Pressure of air outside the body

Atmospheric pressure

13

What is the general function of the respiratory system?

Transport gases to and from the circulatory system

14

Exchanges gases

Respiration

15

Breakdown of glucose in the body using oxygen

Cellular respiration

16

How many lobes does the right lung have? Left?

3; 2

17

A double membrane surrounding the lungs; secretes a mucus that decreases friction

Pleura

18

Why are ribs expandable?

They aren't completely ossified

19

What are the 7 openings in the throat cavity?

1 to esophagus, 1 to larynx, 1 to mouth, 2 nasal passages, 2 eustachian tubes

20

What are the functions of the nostrils?

Filter out dust, warm and moisten air

21

What are the 3 actions to inspiration?

Ribs expand, diaphragm down, pressure decreases

22

What are the 3 actions to expiration?

Ribs contract, diaphragm up, pressure increases

23

What is the regular breathing rate?

12-24 breaths/minute

24

What controls your breathing rate?

Medulla

25

How does high levels of carbon dioxide affect your breathing rate?

Causes you to inhale and exhale faster

26

What is the respiration flow?

Nose/throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, blood, cells

27

Tiny sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged

Alveoli

28

Maximum amount of air that the lungs can hold

Maximum lung capacity

29

Maximum amount of air that a person can inhale/exhale

Vital lung capacity

30

What are the percentages of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide that you inhale?

78%, 21%, .04%

31

What are the percentages of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide that you exhale?

78%, 15%, 5-6%

32

What makes up the upper respiratory tract?

Nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx

33

What makes up the lower respiratory tract?

Larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchial tree

34

Divides the nasal cavity

Nasal septum

35

Bones that curl out of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

Nasal conchae

36

What are the functions of the nasal conchae?

Support the mucus membrane and increase surface ares

37

Reduce the weight of the skull and are resonant chambers that affect the quality of the voice

Paranasal sinuses

38

What is the function of the false vocal cords?

Close airway during swallowing

39

Common passageway for food traveling and air passing; aids in producing sounds for speech

Pharynx

40

What is the function of the true vocal cords?

Vibrations between these produce sound waves

41

Triangular slit where air passes through

Glottis

42

Why are the cartilage rings around the trachea incomplete?

Prevents the trachea from collapsing and blocking the airway

43

What keeps the alveoli from sticking to each other?

Surfactant

44

The measurement of different air volumes

Spirometry

45

Amount of air that leaves the lungs in one respiratory cycle

Tidal volume

46

During forced inspiration, an additional volume can be inhaled into the lungs

Inspiratory reserve volume

47

Volume that can be exhaled during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume

Expiratory reserve volume

48

Volume that remains in lungs after maximal expiration

Residual volume

49

How do you find the vital capacity?

Tidal volume + inspiratory + expiratory

50

How do you find the inspiratory capacity?

Tidal volume + inspiratory

51

Maximum volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of tidal volume

Inspiratory capacity

52

Volume of air that remains in lungs following exhalation and tidal volume

Functional residual capacity

53

How do you find the functional residual capacity?

Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

54

Total volume of air the lungs can hold

Total lung capacity

55

What are 3 things that can affect breathing?

Chemicals, lung tissue stretching, emotional state

56

Breathing can also be called _________

respiration

57

What happens to the internal volume and pressure of the thorax, the size of lungs when the diaphragm is contracted?

Increase, decrease, increase

58

What is the direction of the air flow when the diaphragm contracts?

Goes into the lung

59

What happens to the internal volume and pressure of the thorax and the size of the lungs when the diaphragm is relaxed?

Decrease, increase, decrease

60

What is the direction of the air flow when the diaphragm is relaxed?

Out of lung

61

Lack or cessation of breathing

Apnea

62

Normal breathing in therms of rate and depth

Eupnea

63

Labored breathing or air hunger

Dyspnea

64

Chronic oxygen deficiency

Hypoxia

65

Condition characterized by fibrosis of the lungs and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers

Emphysema

66

Increased mucus production, which clogs respiratory passageways and promotes coughing

Chronic bronchitis

67

Respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar spasms

Asthma

68

Incidence strongly associated with cigarette smoking

Lung cancer

69

Infection spread by airborne bacteria; a recent alarming increase in drug users and AIDS victims

Tuberculosis