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Flashcards in Senses** Deck (58):
1

The sense of smell supplements the sense of ________.

Taste

2

Epithelial cells; free ends extend between epithelial cells. Sense itching

Free nerve endings

3

Small oval masses of flattened connective tissue; detects changes in pressure or movement

Meissner's corpuscles (mechanoreceptors)

4

Composed of connective tissue and nerve fibers; Found in deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue; responds to pressure

Pacinian corpuscles

5

Responds to temperature

Temperature Senses

6

Detects tissue damage

Pain receptors

7

What is the pathway for smell?

Smell receptor, cilia, axon, olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, limbic senses, thalamus

8

How does saliva contribute to the perception of taste?

Chemicals must be dissolved in water in order to be tasted

9

Describe the nerve pathway for taste

Travels on the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. They then travel to the medulla and cerebrum

10

What is the function of the external ear?

Collect sound waves and produces vibrations of the sound wave

11

Describe the hearing pathway

Sound waves enter the external auditory meatus, sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate, vibrations are carried across the middle ear by the malleus, incus, stapes to the oval window. Vibrations cause the stapes to move in and out causing the cochlea to move. Tiny fibers cause a vibration in the hearing receptors which stimulate the nerves. The nerves send messages to the temporal lobe where sounds are interpreted.

12

Why does it help to chew gum while descending on an airplane?

Makes the pressure in ear at equlibrium

13

What is the function of the inner ear?

Transfer sound waves/ vibrations and to maintain equlibrium

14

What are the 4 layers of the eyelid?

Skin, muscle, connective tissue, conjunctiva

15

Which muscles move the eyelid?

Ocularis oculi and Levator palpebrae

16

A mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the eyelids and folds back to cover the anterior surface of the eyeball

Conjunctiva

17

Function is to moisten and lubricate the surface of the eye and lining of the lids

Lacrimal apparatus

18

What is the lacrimal apparatus consist of?

Lacrimal glands and a series of ducts that carries tears into the nasal cavity

19

Antibacterial agent which reduces the risk of eye infections

Lysozyme

20

Rotates eye upwards and toward midline

Superior/inferior rectus

21

Rotate eye towards midline

Medial/lateral rectus

22

Rotate eye downward and away from the midline

Superior/inferior oblique

23

Absorb light (doesn't differentiate color, only shades of gray)

Rods

24

Where are rods present?

Peripheral areas of retina

25

Absorb light of particular wavelength (red, green, blue)

Cones

26

Where are cones present?

Fovea area

27

Light absorbing pigment consisting of opsin and retinal

Rhodopsin

28

Detect light energy

Photoreceptors

29

Describe the nerve pathway for smell

When olfactory receptors are stimulated, their fibers synapse with neurons in the olfactory lobes. Sensory impulses are first analyzed here and then down the olfactory tract to the limbic system and to the temporal lobe

30

The whites of the eyes; functions as protective and supportive layer and an area for extrinsic muscle attachment

Sclera

31

Transparent cover of the eye; function is to focus images onto the lens

Cornea

32

Dark layer of the eye; function is to prevent backscattering of light

Choroid

33

The space between the cornea and the iris. Chamber is filled with aqueous humor which is thought to be formed by the ciliary body

Anterior chamber

34

Clear fluid that nourishes the cornea and lens; helps to maintain shape of the eye

Aqueous humor

35

Extends forward form the choroid coat and forms an internal ring around the front of the eye

Ciliary body

36

The colored parts of the eye; a thin diaphragm composed mostly of connective tissue and smooth muscle fibers and contains the pupils

Iris

37

Circular opening in the center of the iris where light goes through

Pupil

38

The space between the suspensory ligament and the iris

Posterior chamber

39

A transparent jelly-like substance that fills the posterior cavity of the eyeball. Functions to distend the sclera, support the retina, and maintain the spherical shape of the eye

Vitreous humor

40

Transparent, biconvex structure that focuses light on the retina

Lens

41

Adjusts thickness of lens to focus light

Accomidation

42

A nearly transparent sheet of tissue that is continuous with the optic nerves and contains photoreceptors

Retina

43

Often referred to as the blind spot; the spot where nerve fibers and blood vessels make their exit from the eye and does not contain rods or cones

Optic disc

44

A semicircular area of bright, lustrous tissue occupying a considerable portion of the optic nerve. An adaptation for vision in limited light

Tapetum lucidum

45

What happens if there is damage before the chiasma?

Damage on the same side

46

What happens if there is damage after the chiasma?

Damage on the same side

47

What happens if there is damage in the chiasma?

Damage on both sides

48

Flattened connective tissue sheaths surrounding two or more nerve fibers and are abundant in hairless areas that are very sensitive to touch

Tactile corpuscles

49

Large structures of connective tissue and cells that resembles the layers of an onion. Function to detect deep pressure

Lamellated corpuscles

50

Do temperature receptors adapt quickly?

Yes

51

Do pain receptors adapt quickly?

No

52

Do olfactory receptors adapt quickly?

Yes

53

Do taste receptors adapt quickly?

Yes

54

Functions to both hold the lens in shape and change the lens size to acommodate for near or far vision

Suspensory ligament

55

Muscles in the iris that constrict

Circular muscle

56

Muscles in the iris that dilate

Radial muscle

57

The ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts

Proprioreception

58

Senses change in the chemical concentration of substances

Chemoreceptors