Nervous System Vocabulary** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System Vocabulary** Deck (35)
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Depolarization and repolarization along an axon

Nerve impulse

1

Sheath formed from schwann cells on the exterior of some axons

Neurilemma

2

Nerve cells

Neurons

3

Chemicals that axons secrete on the effectors

Neurotransmitters

4

Specialized cells of the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

Neuroglial cells

5

A neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to the effector

Motor neuron

6

Fatty layers formed from certain neuroglia that surround axons, providing insulation

Myelin sheath

7

An electrical charge on a cell membrane surface due to an unequal distribution of positive and negative ions on either side of the membrane

Polarized

8

The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane

Resting potential

9

A type of neuroglial cell that surrounds an axon of a peripheral neuron, forming the neurilemma sheath and myelin

Schwann cell

10

The space between 2 cells forming a synapse

Synaptic cleft

11

Neurons that transmit impulses from receptors to the CNS

Sensory neurons

12

Process that requires energy to move a substance across a cell membrane, usually against the concentration gradient

Active transport

13

The sequence of electrical changes that occurs in a portion of a nerve cell membrane that is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds the membrane's threshold

Action potential

14

A nerve fiber that conducts an impulse away from the neuron cell body

Axon

15

A type of neurotransmitter which is a biochemical secreted at axon ends of many neurons; transmits nerve messages across synapses

Acetylcholine

16

Portion of nerve cell that included a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus, and from which nerve fibers extend

Cell body

17

Process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons

Dendrites

18

The loss of an electrical charge on the surface of a cell membrane

Depolarized

19

A neuron between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron

Interneuron

20

Simulation level that must be exceeded to elicit a nerve impulse

Threshold

22

Membranous cytoplasmic sacs formed by infoldings of the cell membrane

Vesicle

23

Space between Schwann cells

Nodes of Ranvier

24

A change or signal in the environment that helps nerves to react in some way

Stimulus

25

The restoration of a polarized state across a membrane.

Repolarization

26

A mechanism of active transport that moves potassium ions into and sodium ions out of a cell.

Sodium-potassium pump

27

a filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carry blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue, blocking the passage of certain substances.

Blood-brain barrier

28

The spreading of something

Propagation

29

a neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord

Efferent neurons

30

a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord

Afferent neurons