Nervous System Vocabulary** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System Vocabulary** Deck (35):
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Depolarization and repolarization along an axon

Nerve impulse

1

Sheath formed from schwann cells on the exterior of some axons

Neurilemma

2

Nerve cells

Neurons

3

Chemicals that axons secrete on the effectors

Neurotransmitters

4

Specialized cells of the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

Neuroglial cells

5

A neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to the effector

Motor neuron

6

Fatty layers formed from certain neuroglia that surround axons, providing insulation

Myelin sheath

7

An electrical charge on a cell membrane surface due to an unequal distribution of positive and negative ions on either side of the membrane

Polarized

8

The difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane

Resting potential

9

A type of neuroglial cell that surrounds an axon of a peripheral neuron, forming the neurilemma sheath and myelin

Schwann cell

10

The space between 2 cells forming a synapse

Synaptic cleft

11

Neurons that transmit impulses from receptors to the CNS

Sensory neurons

12

Process that requires energy to move a substance across a cell membrane, usually against the concentration gradient

Active transport

13

The sequence of electrical changes that occurs in a portion of a nerve cell membrane that is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds the membrane's threshold

Action potential

14

A nerve fiber that conducts an impulse away from the neuron cell body

Axon

15

A type of neurotransmitter which is a biochemical secreted at axon ends of many neurons; transmits nerve messages across synapses

Acetylcholine

16

Portion of nerve cell that included a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus, and from which nerve fibers extend

Cell body

17

Process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons

Dendrites

18

The loss of an electrical charge on the surface of a cell membrane

Depolarized

19

A neuron between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron

Interneuron

20

Simulation level that must be exceeded to elicit a nerve impulse

Threshold

22

Membranous cytoplasmic sacs formed by infoldings of the cell membrane

Vesicle

23

Space between Schwann cells

Nodes of Ranvier

24

A change or signal in the environment that helps nerves to react in some way

Stimulus

25

The restoration of a polarized state across a membrane.

Repolarization

26

A mechanism of active transport that moves potassium ions into and sodium ions out of a cell.

Sodium-potassium pump

27

a filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carry blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue, blocking the passage of certain substances.

Blood-brain barrier

28

The spreading of something

Propagation

29

a neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord

Efferent neurons

30

a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord

Afferent neurons

31

A small mass of differentiated tissue

Node

32

Ends of the axon that release neurotransmitters

Axon terminal

33

a period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation.

Refractory Period

34

The potential difference between the region inside the membrane and the region outside the membrane

Resting potential

35

Neurons are depolarized sufficiently

Threshold potential