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Flashcards in CNS Part 3 Deck (35):
1

which type of cerebrovascular disease is most common and which is most fatal?

ischemic stroke (due to atherosclerosis)
hemorrhagic (due to uncontrolled BP) worse mortality

2

macroscopically what does the brain look like with cerebral ischemia?

swollen/widened gyri
narrowed sulci
edematous
poor demarcation between grey and white matter

3

dementia brain looks like?

atrophy

4

microscopically what does cerebral ischemia look like?

fails to stain with H and E

5

third leading cause of death and leading cause of major disability in the US

strokes

6

what causes ischemic strokes

thrombosis, embolus, systemic hypoperfusion

7

what causes hemorrhagic strokes

intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hem, subdural hem, or epidural hem

8

dominant hemisphere stroke (usually left)

right hemiparesis
right hemisensory loss
left gaze preference
right visual field cut
aphasia

9

first 12 to 24 hours after stroke

nvacuolated neurons
red neurons (eosinophilia of neuronal cytoplasm)

10

24 hours after stroke

infiltration by neutrophils begins at edges of lesion where there is still blood supply

11

1-14 after stroke

infarcted area increased macrophages and reactive gliosis

12

gliosis

the end result of infarct
brain trying to heal itself
reactive proliferation of astrocytes

13

first and second stages of gliosis

1st: microgliosis
2nd: astrogliosis: proliferation of astrocytes

14

most common location for ischemic stroke

at carotid bifurcation or in vertebrobasilar artery

15

most common artery affected in ischemic stroke

middle cerebral artery

16

valvular vegetations in SBE associated with what heart condition that can embolize to brain?

atrial fibrillation

17

primary underlying cause of hem stroke

hypertension

18

epidural

above dura

19

most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is

rupture of berry aneurism in circle of willis

20

cerebral brainstem stroke due to what

pathology in vertebral basilar arteries

21

most common type of clinically significant vascular malformation

arterovenous malformations (A/V)

22

macroscopic appearance of A/V malformations

tangled network of wormlike vascular channels

23

syndrome in hypertensive pt with diffuse cerebral dysfunction (HA, confusion, convulsions, vomiting)

hypertensive encephalopathy

24

who gets hypertensive encephalopathy

postpartum women

25

do concussions cause brain damage?

no, just temporary

26

anascoria

pupils different size
- bad sign
- more brain damage than just concussion

27

coup injury

injury at sight of contact

28

contrecoup injury

damage to brain surface opposite to point of contact

29

most common type of skull fracture

linear

30

bones separate at sutures in younger children

diastatic

31

bones in many pieces and driven into brain

comminuted

32

rupture of middle meningeal artery

epidural hematoma

33

damage to bridging veins between brain and superior saggital sinus

sub-dural hematoma

34

basilar skull fracture

raccoon eyes = bilateral periorbital ecchymosis

35

where are sub-dural hematomas

between dura and arachnoid
crescent shaped