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Flashcards in CNS part 4 Deck (34):
1

most common type of dementia

alzeimers (late onset more common)

2

early onset alzeimers is associated with which chromosome mutations

1, 14, 21
21 = trimsomy 21 (most common)

3

abnormalities found in brain of alzeimers

amyloid plaque

4

what does brain with dementia look like

gyri width decreased
sulci deeper
increased ventricles
diminished volume of grey and white matter

5

Pick's disease

uncommon cause of dementia that appears similar to alzeimers

6

atrophy of Pick's disease

knife-like
in frontal and temporal lobes

7

neurofibullary tangles of alzheimers are found inside neurons that consist of what protein

tau

8

micro infarcts

vascular dementia

9

what does parkinsons affect

pigmented neuronal groups: substantia nigra, locus ceruleus

10

hist of parkinsons

pale substantia nigra
decreased pigment
decreased neurons

11

Lewy body dementia

patients with parkinsons also have dementia
- dementia and motor symptoms at the same time
- lewy bodies found in these patients

12

demyelinating diseases

MS
progressive multifocal leukiencephalopathy
central pontine myelinosis

13

most common demyelinating disease

MS

14

how do you distinguish old vs new plaques in MS?

gadolineum

15

how would you measure levels of immune proteins which are usually elevated in MS

lumbar puncture

16

definitive diagnostic test for MS

none

17

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to what infection

JC virus

18

hist of PML

foamy macrophages
large astrocytes

19

iatrogenic cause of central pontine myelinolysis

overly rapid correction of hyponatremia
- causes myelin to be destroyed
- no inflammation

20

in children and adults, where are 70% of brain tumors located

children: below tentorium
adults: above tentorium

21

primary brain tumors: meningioma

benign
arise in arachnoid

22

most prevalent brain tumor in children

astrocytic tumors
#1 glioblastoma
-#2 medulloblastoma
#3 ependymoma
#4 craniopharyngioma

23

most prevalent brain tumors in adults

#1 metastatic
#2 astrocytic and meningiomas

24

glioblastoma multiforme prognosis

most malignant: die within 8-10 months

25

glioblastoma multiforme macroscopic

butterfly lesion spreads across corpus collosum

26

which brain tumors account for 80% of all adult brain tumors

fibrillary astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme

27

astrocytoma

malignant
stellite, spindle, fiberlike processes

28

ependymoma

found near 4th ventricle

29

hydrocephalus

CSF blocked by tumor

30

10% of primary brain tumors in children are

ganglioglioma

31

most common poorly differentiated brain tumor

medulloblastoma
- only in cerebellum

32

hist of medulloblastoma

rosettes
small, ovoid, elongated cells

33

Do malignant brain tumors met outside CNS?

not usually

34

most common primary adult brain tumors

fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma