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Flashcards in Quiz 5 CNS Deck (69):
1

Where is CSF?

between arachnoid and pia mater

2

absence of brain formation

anencephaly

3

diminished brain size

microcephaly

4

enlarged abnormal gyri

macrogyri/pachygyri

5

anencephaly

neural tube defect where rostral (head) end of neural tube fails to close.

6

causes of microcephaly

fetal alcohol syndrome
trisomy 18
congenital rubella
congenital HIV

7

caused by abnormalities in CSF production, flow, or reabsorption

hydrocephalus

8

normal pressure hydrocephalus

communicating hydrocephalus where cerebral ventricles are enlarged with only intermittently elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure

9

failure of normal closure of vertebral column and overlying skin over dorsal aspect of spinal cord.

spina bifida

10

#1 cause of hydrocephalus

obstruction of CSF flow

11

condition of missing portion of posterior vertebral body

spina bifida occulta

12

herniation of meninges but not spinal cord

meningocele

13

herniation of meninges and spinal cord

menigomyelocele

14

what protein is used to diagnose spina bifid a and other neural tube defects? When is it measured?

- alpha fetal protein
- beginning of second trimester (14-16 weeks)

15

what else can elevated alpha fetal protein indicate?

multiple gestations
abdominal wall defects
placental abruption
anencephaly

16

what does decreased MAFP indicate?

Down's syndrome
Trisomy 18

17

When does cerebral palsy most commonly occur?

during pregnancy (75%)
during child birth (10%)
after birth (15%)

18

List 4 responses of the nervous system to injury that are not seen in other tissues

- neuronal chromatolysis
- phagocytosis
- gliosis
- cerebral edema

19

What are intrauterine causes of cerebral palsy?

- maternal infxn of strep throat
- maternal CNS system infections

20

What causes cerebral palsy after birth?

severe jaundice
encephalitis
meningitis
toxins such as lead poisoning
physical brain injury
hypoxia to brain

21

most common type of cerebral palsy

spastic

22

most common condition found on autopsy of newborns with cerebral palsy

periventricular leukomalacia: necrosis around ventricles

23

gliosis and gliosal scarring due to lack of blood flow to periventricular area of brain leading to necrosis?

periventricular leukomalacia

24

- scarring caused by astrocytes

gliosis

25

inflammation of pia and arachnoid mater

meningitis

26

inflammation of brain parenchyma

encephalitis

27

#1 cause of meningitis

viral but less serious than bacterial
- viral resolve without treatment

28

#2 cause of meningitis

bacterial and can cause death

29

aseptic meningitis

non-bacterial

30

hallmark of cerebral palsy

white matter necrosis/periventricular leukomalacia

31

inflammation of pia and arachnoid mater as well as inflammation of the brain

meningoencephalitis

32

purulent meningitis

bacterial menigitis

33

what can cause meningitis?

viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, chemical irritation, drug allergies, tumors

34

sequelae of miningococcal

waterhouse fredrickson

35

what causes aseptic meningitis

coxsackie A and B virus and
echovirus
poliovirus
mumps can also cause
(all enteroviruses)
- herpes 1 and 2, HIV, chicken pox can also cause

36

what does rabies cause?

meningoencephalitis (inflammation of brain and meninges)

37

what stain is used for cryptococcal meningitis on CSF?

India ink stain

38

cryptococcus usually affects what population?
risk factors?

immunocompromised
- AIDS, lymphoma, diabetes

39

hist of cryptococcus

cells are encapsulated

40

PE finding of cryptococcus

papilledema
granuloma

41

what causes viral meningitis in the summer?
late summmer?
spring?

- summer and spring: arthropod-borne diseases (arboviruses)
- late summer: Entero in late summer
- spring: mumps and varicella
- herpes not seasonal

42

bacterial strains that cause meningitis

E.coli
strep pneumoniae
H. flu
N. meningitidis

43

what are some sx of meningitis?

petechiae (purple red spots/rash)
fever
n/v
stiff neck

44

what causes aseptic meningitis?

coxsackie virus
echovirus
mumps
(all are enteroviruses)

45

bacteria causing meningitis in infants/children

N. meningococci

46

baceteria causing menigitis in adolescents and adults

N. meningococci

47

bacteria causing meningitis in older adults

S. pneumonia, then N. menigococci

48

pt without a spleen are at risk for

N meningitiis and H flu

49

where is spinal tap performed?

between 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae

50

gram stain of N menigococci

gm negative diplococci

51

what can precede meningococcal meningitis?

petechiae

52

what causes aseptic meningitis?

coxsackie virus
echovirus
mumps
(all are enteroviruses)

53

most common non-hematologic cancers to met to CNS?

lung, melanoma, and breast

54

what tumors can met to CNS and meninges>

head, neck, GU, gastro

55

most frequent histological type of ca to met

adenocarcinoma

56

once implanted, how do ca cells grow in the brain?

in a sheet like fashion over surface of brain

57

most common cerebral and CN symptoms of carcinomatous meningitis?

headache
diplopia

58

mass of immune cells, pus, and other materials when brain is infected by bacteria, fungi, or parasites

brain abscess

59

abscess that enhances contrast along with cerebral edema and midline shift

crytpococcal brain abscess

60

slender hyphae that branch is what type of abscess

aspergillus brain abscess

61

most common organism found in brain abscesses

strep

62

common organism in infants with brain abscess

gram negative

63

most common neuro-parasitic infection in humans
-infection of CNS by larvae of park tapeworm

neurocysticercosis

64

bug that causes neurocysticercosis
tape worm larvae

Taenia solium
tape worm larvae: cysticerci

65

most common cause of adult onset seizures in some developing countries

neurocysticercosis

66

most common cause of viral meningitis in children and adults

enteroviruses
(used to be mumps in children)

67

second most common cause of viral meningitis in adults?

HSV type 2

68

most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in developed countries

herpes simplex virus (HSV)

69

tumors arising in and outside the nervous system that result in meningitis

carcinomatous meningitis
-detect tumor cells in CSF to dx