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Flashcards in Quiz 5 PNS Deck (43):
1

Common causes of PNS neuropathies

vitamin deficiency, medications, systemic disease (diabetes), traumatic injury, alcohol

2

axolemma

cell membrane surrounding the axon and maintains membrane potential of the neuron

3

Wallerian degeneration

process that happens when a nerve fiber is cut or crush and nerve fiber is separated from neuron's cell body

4

most common cranial nerve neuropathy

Bell's Palsy

5

Bell's Palsy

CN 7
- associated with HSV 1
- unilateral paralysis of entire face including mouth
- no loss of speach

6

Difference between Bell's Palsy and a stroke

Stroke: can move forehead, loss of speach
Bell's: no loss of speach, can't move forehead, can't lift eyelid, can't puff cheeks

7

trigemminal neuralgia

- superior cerebellar artery compresses trigemminal nerve root.
- severe pain on face where trigemminal nerve runs

8

oculomotor nerve palsy

maintain lateral and down gaze because trochlear and abducens nerves are in tact

9

mononeuropathies of limbs

- carpal tunnel syndrome
- ulnar neuropathy
- brachial plexus neuropathy
- peroneal neuropathy
- meralgia parasthetica

10

Carpal Tunnel

compression/entrapment of median nerve
first three digits and half of 4th (where median nerve runs)

11

what do hypothenar eminence atrophy and thenar eminence atrophy indicate?

hypothenar: median nerve (carpal tunnel)

thenar: ulnar nerve

12

meralgia paresthetica

lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh is compressed by the inguinal ligament
- pain, tingling, numbness
- common in obese patients

13

3 CN mononeuropathies

CN 3 oculomotor nerve palsy
CN 5 trigemminal neuralgia (tic delarux)
CN 7 Bells Palsy

14

mechanism of diabetic neuropathy related to hyperglycemia

hyperglycemia leads to accumulation of sorbitol and depletion of inositol
- decreased inositol Na, K, ATP-ase
- leads to decreased nerve function
- sorbitol holds water in which can affect nerves

15

renal failure is most commonly associated with

axonal degeneration

16

most common cause of immune inflammatory polyneuropathies in US

Guillain barre syndrome
- goes from feet up

17

What polyneuropathy starts from the head and moves downward?

Botulism (descending paralysis)

18

chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyrediculopathy

gradual onset
relapses and remits
macrophage cells strip away myelin
mimicks ascending paralysis of guillain barre
no respiratory involvement

19

ethanol related neuropathy

distal, painful neuropathy
burning, stabbing pain

20

In what population is peripheral neuropathy most common?

in diabetic patients

21

B1/thiamine deficiency

beri beri
alcohol related
wernicke korsikoff syndrome

22

B6 deficiency

toxicity of dorsal root ganglion

23

B12 deficiency

megaloblastic anemia

24

infectious diseases that can cause polyneuropathies

leprosy (Hanson's disease)
HIV/AIDS
lyme
varicella zoster

25

#1 viral pathology to affect PNS

Herpes Zoster

26

hist leprosy (mycobacterium leprae)

red snapper
acid fast to see (doesn't take up gram stain well)

27

Herpes Zoster

lives in dorsal root ganglion
stress can cause it to come on
usually unilateral
involves 1-3 dermatomes

28

lyme neuropathy vs bells palsy

bilateral facial neuropathy more common in patients with lyme disease

29

Areas most commonly affected by herpes zoster

trigemminal (opthalmic) and thoracic dermatomes

30

hist of herpes zoster

multinucleated giant cell

31

sign that precedes opthalmic herpes zoster

Hutchinson's sign
- skin lesion on tip of nose

32

complication of shingles that involves the eyes

herpes zoster oticus
severe otalgia and cutaneous vesicular eruptions
corneal ulceration

33

what is herpes zoster oticus called when it is associated with facial paralysis?

Ramsey-Hunt syndrome

34

benign primary intracranial tumor of myelin-forming glial cells of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
- sensori-neuro hearling loss
- disturbed balance
- vertigo
- N/V
- pressure in ear

schwanomma (acoustic neuroma)

35

common, benign spindle cell tumor of peripheral nerves

neurofibroma

36

schwanomma on CN 8

vestibular schwannoma

37

multiple neurofibromas

neurofibromatosis

38

which type of neurofibromatosis is more common?

type 1 (90%)

39

characteristics of type 1 neurofibromatosis

- usually unilateral
- cafe au lait spots

40

mutation of what causes neurofibromatosis 1?

neurofibromin, a tumor suppressor gene

41

type 2 neurofibromatosis

- bilateral
- cause here loss by age 20
- mutation of protein merlin

42

elongated cells in parallel bundles (like bundles of cables)
no atypia

perineuroma

43

tumor that arises from major nerves in neck, forearm, lower leg, buttocks.
- associated with neurofibromatosis
- increased cells and mitotic figures

malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)/malignant schwannoma