Flashcards in Quiz 2 Renal Part 3 and 4 Deck (51):
where is toxic tubular necrosis found?
where is ischemic tubular necrosis found?
hist of toxic acute tubular necrosis
absence of nuclei
homogenous cytoplasm that stains intensely eosinophilic
what is pathognomonic for ATN?
muddy brown casts found in urine
what causes skip lesions through tubules?
Acute interstitial nephritis
does not effect tubule, glomerulus
does effect cells outside (interstitum)
what causes acute interstitial nephritis?
allergic response to drug
rejection of renal transplant
what causes chronic interstitial nephritis?
diseases that lead to progressive scarring
exposure to lead
if drugs are removed
what would have eosinophils in blood or urine?
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)
hist of chronic interstitial nephritis
thin wire appearance
disease of proximal renal tubule
gluocse, amino acids, uric acid, phosphate, and bicarb passed into urine instead of being reabsorbed
- caused by drugs or heavy metals
what is Fanconi's associated with?
renal tubular acidosis (RTA)
- accumulation of acid in body due to failure of kidneys to acidify urine
what can it lead to?
occurs after ingestion of large amounts of analgesics over long period of time
- can lead to papillary necrosis
cause of benign nephrosclerosis
DM with HTN
Cause of malignant nephrosclerosis
changes to vessels of kidneys
hist of benign nephrosclerosis
thickening of walls of small arteries
hist of malignant nephrosclerosis
onion ring appearance of blood vessels
what is number one cause of secondary HTN?
renal artery stenosis
what are two main reasons for RAS
fibromuscular dysplasia of renal artery
atheroembolic renal disease
scar formation of renal artery
which conditions commonly have thrombotic microangiopathy?
HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome)
TTP (trhombotic thrombocytopenic purpura)
what is most common bacteria to cause HUS?
E. Coli 0157:H7
Who gets HUS?
- also postpartum women
* clotting and bleeding simultaneously with HUS
hist of HUS
capillary lumen occluded by necrotic debris and thrmobi
where do emboli to renal artery come from?
what does kidney tissue look like after cell death due to tissue infarct?
wedge shaped because lose blood to whole area. (not sure how to explain this better)
what is the most common type of kidney stone?
calcium oxalate (75%)
What are the 4 types of kidney stones?
calcium oxalate (75%)
triple phosphate (15%)
uric acid (5%)
which stones show up on X-ray?
what type of stones are pyramidal?
struvite and triple phosphate
which type of stones are seen most common in association with urinary tract infections by bacteria that are urea-splitting?
magnesium ammonium phosphate stones (triple phosphate stones)
*increased urine pH
what causes staghorn triple phosphate stones?
urea splitting bacteria
what is pH of urine with uric acid crystals/stones
acidic urine with pH of 5.5 or less
what is the most common type of stone in children?
why is ca elevated in cancer?
bone mets cause the release parathyroid hormone which boosts ca levels
what are the benign renal tumors?
renal papillary adenoma
renal fibroma or hamartoma
which type of tumor has hist of fronds?
hist of oncocytoma
uniform large polygonal cells
most common primary renal tumor in children?
Wilm's tumor/ nephroblastoma
what tissue does primary renal tumor originate in?
what is the most common malignancy?
what chromosome is affected in children with Wilm's?
what is the second most common renal malignancy?
mets from another tissue
most common primary malignancy?
Second most common primary malignancy (not including mets from another tissue)?
transitional cell carcinoma
most common tumor in UG tract?
hist of wilm's tumor
nests of cells
risk factors for RCC
exposure to cadmium and asbestos
dialysis leads to cystic dz which is a risk factor
Most common type of RCC
clear cell carcinoma (75-85%)
-contain a lot of glycogen
#1 cause of hydronephrosis in kids
renal pelvic junction obstruction
where does clear cell carcinoma arise from?