Quiz 2 Renal Part 3 and 4 Flashcards Preview

Path IV Quizzes > Quiz 2 Renal Part 3 and 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 2 Renal Part 3 and 4 Deck (51):
1

where is toxic tubular necrosis found?

proximal tubule

2

where is ischemic tubular necrosis found?

distal tubule

3

hist of toxic acute tubular necrosis

absence of nuclei
homogenous cytoplasm that stains intensely eosinophilic
normal shape

4

what is pathognomonic for ATN?

muddy brown casts found in urine

5

what causes skip lesions through tubules?

ischemic ATN

6

Acute interstitial nephritis

does not effect tubule, glomerulus
does effect cells outside (interstitum)

7

what causes acute interstitial nephritis?

strep
legionella
CMV
allergic response to drug
rejection of renal transplant
NSAIDS

8

what causes chronic interstitial nephritis?

diseases that lead to progressive scarring
cancers
exposure to lead
if drugs are removed

9

what would have eosinophils in blood or urine?

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)

10

hist of chronic interstitial nephritis

thin wire appearance

11

Fanconi's syndrome

disease of proximal renal tubule
gluocse, amino acids, uric acid, phosphate, and bicarb passed into urine instead of being reabsorbed
- caused by drugs or heavy metals

12

what is Fanconi's associated with?

renal tubular acidosis (RTA)
- accumulation of acid in body due to failure of kidneys to acidify urine

13

analgesic nephropathy
what can it lead to?

occurs after ingestion of large amounts of analgesics over long period of time
- can lead to papillary necrosis

14

cause of benign nephrosclerosis

DM with HTN

15

Cause of malignant nephrosclerosis

changes to vessels of kidneys

16

hist of benign nephrosclerosis

thickening of walls of small arteries
granular appearance

17

hist of malignant nephrosclerosis

onion ring appearance of blood vessels

18

what is number one cause of secondary HTN?

renal artery stenosis

19

what are two main reasons for RAS

atherosclerosis
fibromuscular dysplasia of renal artery
atheroembolic renal disease
scar formation of renal artery

20

which conditions commonly have thrombotic microangiopathy?

HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome)
TTP (trhombotic thrombocytopenic purpura)

21

what is most common bacteria to cause HUS?

E. Coli 0157:H7

22

Who gets HUS?

children
- also postpartum women
* clotting and bleeding simultaneously with HUS

23

hist of HUS

capillary lumen occluded by necrotic debris and thrmobi

24

where do emboli to renal artery come from?

heart

25

what does kidney tissue look like after cell death due to tissue infarct?

wedge shaped because lose blood to whole area. (not sure how to explain this better)

26

what is the most common type of kidney stone?

calcium oxalate (75%)

27

What are the 4 types of kidney stones?

calcium oxalate (75%)
triple phosphate (15%)
uric acid (5%)
cystine (1%)

28

which stones show up on X-ray?

ca oxalate

29

what type of stones are pyramidal?

struvite and triple phosphate

30

which type of stones are seen most common in association with urinary tract infections by bacteria that are urea-splitting?

magnesium ammonium phosphate stones (triple phosphate stones)
*increased urine pH

31

what causes staghorn triple phosphate stones?

urea splitting bacteria

32

what is pH of urine with uric acid crystals/stones

acidic urine with pH of 5.5 or less

33

what is the most common type of stone in children?

cystine stones

34

why is ca elevated in cancer?

bone mets cause the release parathyroid hormone which boosts ca levels

35

what are the benign renal tumors?

renal papillary adenoma
renal fibroma or hamartoma
angiomyolipoma
oncocytoma

36

which type of tumor has hist of fronds?

papillary adenoma

37

hist of oncocytoma

uniform large polygonal cells
numerous mitochondria

38

most common primary renal tumor in children?

Wilm's tumor/ nephroblastoma

39

what tissue does primary renal tumor originate in?

kidney

40

what is the most common malignancy?

RCC

41

what chromosome is affected in children with Wilm's?

11

42

what is the second most common renal malignancy?

mets from another tissue

43

most common primary malignancy?

RCC

44

Second most common primary malignancy (not including mets from another tissue)?

transitional cell carcinoma

45

most common tumor in UG tract?

TCC

46

hist of wilm's tumor

nests of cells
deep purple/blue
basophilic staining

47

risk factors for RCC

tobacco
exposure to cadmium and asbestos
dialysis leads to cystic dz which is a risk factor

48

Most common type of RCC

clear cell carcinoma (75-85%)
-contain a lot of glycogen

49

#1 cause of hydronephrosis in kids

renal pelvic junction obstruction

50

where does clear cell carcinoma arise from?

proximal tubule

51

most common location for mets of RCC?

lung and brain from renal vein to vena cava