Flashcards in Quiz 2 Renal Part 1 and 2 Deck (39):
what activates cascade of angiotensinogen to angio 1 to angio 2?
Absence of one or both kidneys
- Condition in which kidneys are fused at either upper or lower pole.
- Which location is most common?
- Horseshoe kidney
- lower pole
what is the difference between adult and child PKD (polycystic kidney disease)?
- adult: autosomal dominant
- child: autosomal recessive
hist of childhood PKD
large cysts lined with flattened cuboidal epithelium and intervening parenchyma that is fibrotic with islands of blue cartilage
What is adult PKD associated with?
concurrent liver cysts
What does dialysis cause? And what does this predispose these pt for?
- chronic dialysis cysts
- predisopose for RCC
Do simply cysts and dialysis cysts both cause an increased risk for RCC?
No, just dialysis cysts
which glomerular diseases present as nephrotic syndrome?
lipoid nephrosis/minimal change nephrosis
nodular and diffuse glomerulosclerosis
*they are all non-proliferative
What are the 4 characteristics of nephrotic syndrome?
1. porteinuria >3gm per 24 hours
2. decreased serum proteins
3. increased serum lipid levels
What do you call edema everywhere?
What are the 6 characteristics of nephritic syndrome?
1. proteinuria (less than nephrotic syndrome)
2. gross hematuria
3. RBC casts
4. azotemia (increased BUN)
5. oliguria (urine
What is #1 type of nephrotic syndrome in children?
minimal change/lipoid nephrosis
hist of lipoid nephrosis
Most common adult nephrotic syndrome and what is cause?
caused by response to antigenic stimulation by an infectious agent or toxin (hep B and C, syphilis, malaria, schistosomiasis)
hist of membranous glomerulopathy
diffusely thickened basement membrane and spiked appearance
- capillary loops are thickened and prominent
most common type of nephrotic syndrome in African American adults?
Focal Segmental glomerulosclerosis
hist of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
some parts are normal and some parts are abnormal
what causes post-infectious glomerulonephritis?
immune response to previous infection with GABHS
What two diseases can cause glomerulosclerosis and their hist?
diabetes: hyaline degeneration
amyloidosis: pink, fibrils of protein line up in amyloid. And foot processes coming off
#1 cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide?
IgA/Bergers type III immune reaction
#1 cause of chronic renal failure in US?
characteristics of diabetic nephropathy
What is nodular glomerulosclerosis related to diabetes referred to as?
mnemonic for nephritic syndrome characteristics
Bergers disease/IgA nephropathy
marked hypersecrtion of IgA in response to antigenic stimulus
* common in pt with celiac
Another disease state of IgA over-secretion?
Characteristics of Henoch-Schonlein purpura
List types of non-proliferative glomerulonephritis
minimal change GN
focal segmental GN
What is the most common cause of acute nephritic syndrome?
hist of post-strep GN
clumps of humps
hist of rapidly progressing GN (RPGN)
crescent shape: bands of fibrin deposited throughout capillary tufts
what conditions increase risk of RPGN>
collagen vascular (Goodpasture and Henoch-schonlein)
type II hypersensitivity
basement membrane changes in kidney and lungs
involves kidney and other organs (mucosa, otitis, conjunctivitis, gums)
lab for Wegener's granulomatosis
+ C- ANCA
(anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies)
What would P-ANCA be positive in?
polyartaritis nodosum (PAN)
Adult PKD is known to have cysts where?
kidney and liver