Quiz 2 Renal Part 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Renal Part 1 and 2 Deck (39):
1

what activates cascade of angiotensinogen to angio 1 to angio 2?

Renin

2

Absence of one or both kidneys

renal agenesis

3

- Condition in which kidneys are fused at either upper or lower pole.
- Which location is most common?

- Horseshoe kidney
- lower pole

4

what is the difference between adult and child PKD (polycystic kidney disease)?

- adult: autosomal dominant
- child: autosomal recessive

5

hist of childhood PKD

large cysts lined with flattened cuboidal epithelium and intervening parenchyma that is fibrotic with islands of blue cartilage

6

What is adult PKD associated with?

concurrent liver cysts

7

What does dialysis cause? And what does this predispose these pt for?

- chronic dialysis cysts
- predisopose for RCC

8

Do simply cysts and dialysis cysts both cause an increased risk for RCC?

No, just dialysis cysts

9

which glomerular diseases present as nephrotic syndrome?

lipoid nephrosis/minimal change nephrosis
membranous glomerulopathy
focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis
nodular and diffuse glomerulosclerosis
*they are all non-proliferative

10

What are the 4 characteristics of nephrotic syndrome?

1. porteinuria >3gm per 24 hours
2. decreased serum proteins
3. increased serum lipid levels
4. edema

11

What do you call edema everywhere?

anasarca

12

What are the 6 characteristics of nephritic syndrome?

1. proteinuria (less than nephrotic syndrome)
2. gross hematuria
3. RBC casts
4. azotemia (increased BUN)
5. oliguria (urine

13

What is #1 type of nephrotic syndrome in children?

minimal change/lipoid nephrosis

14

hist of lipoid nephrosis

normal

15

Most common adult nephrotic syndrome and what is cause?

membranous glomerulopathy
caused by response to antigenic stimulation by an infectious agent or toxin (hep B and C, syphilis, malaria, schistosomiasis)

16

hist of membranous glomerulopathy

diffusely thickened basement membrane and spiked appearance
- capillary loops are thickened and prominent

17

most common type of nephrotic syndrome in African American adults?

Focal Segmental glomerulosclerosis

18

hist of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

some parts are normal and some parts are abnormal

19

what causes post-infectious glomerulonephritis?

immune response to previous infection with GABHS

20

What two diseases can cause glomerulosclerosis and their hist?

diabetes: hyaline degeneration
amyloidosis: pink, fibrils of protein line up in amyloid. And foot processes coming off

21

#1 cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide?

IgA/Bergers type III immune reaction

22

#1 cause of chronic renal failure in US?

Diabetes mellitus

23

characteristics of diabetic nephropathy

slow progressing
proteinuria
glucosuria
*spilling microalbumin

24

What is nodular glomerulosclerosis related to diabetes referred to as?

Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease

25

mnemonic for nephritic syndrome characteristics

PHAROH
Proteinuria
Hematuria
Azotemia
RBC casts
Oliguria
Hypertension

26

Bergers disease/IgA nephropathy

marked hypersecrtion of IgA in response to antigenic stimulus
* common in pt with celiac

27

Another disease state of IgA over-secretion?

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

28

Characteristics of Henoch-Schonlein purpura

skin lesions
joint tenderness
hematuria
vasculitis
in kids

29

List types of non-proliferative glomerulonephritis

minimal change GN
focal segmental GN
membranous GN

30

What is the most common cause of acute nephritic syndrome?

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
GABHS

31

hist of post-strep GN

clumps of humps

32

hist of rapidly progressing GN (RPGN)

crescent shape: bands of fibrin deposited throughout capillary tufts

33

what conditions increase risk of RPGN>

vasculitis
collagen vascular (Goodpasture and Henoch-schonlein)
IgA nephropathy
Membranoproliferative GN

34

Goodpasture

type II hypersensitivity
basement membrane changes in kidney and lungs

35

Wegener's granulomatosis

involves kidney and other organs (mucosa, otitis, conjunctivitis, gums)
sores
ulcers

36

lab for Wegener's granulomatosis

+ C- ANCA
(anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies)

37

What would P-ANCA be positive in?

polyartaritis nodosum (PAN)

38

Adult PKD is known to have cysts where?

kidney and liver

39

what is the worst biopsy finding in Wegeners?

crescentic