Flashcards in Quiz 2 Lower Urinary Tract Deck (22):
is bilateral or unilateral duplication of ureter more common?
bilateral is rare
what do anomalies of ureterovesical junction cause?
what do 70% of children with UTIs have?
vesicoureteral reflux: abnormal flow of urine from bladder to ureters and possibly to kidneys
difference between ureteritis follicularis and ureteritis cystica
follicularis: fine granular appearance
cystica: inflammatory state which causes mucosa to appear as if sprinkled with fine cysts.
where does unilateral vs bilateral obstruction of the ureter occur?
unilateral: higher up urinary tract
bilateral: closer to bladder
what are majority of ureteral malignancies?
transitional cell carcinomas
- this causes increased risk for what?
bladder can lie as an open sac due to failure of normal development of anterior wall of abdomen and of blader.
- increased risk for adenocarcinoma of colon
urachal cysts can become what?
most common cause of bacterial cystitis?
what urinary microscopy findings point to UTI?
white blood cells
multiple rod shaped bacilli between WBCs
what are atypical agents in cystitis?
common in middle east
result of chronic inflammation of bladder
changes in bladder lining
malakoplakia (patter of bladder change that results in chronic inflammation)
hist of malakoplakia
foamy histiocytes with distinct round basophilic inclusions (michaelis-Gutmann bodies)
what is pathognomonic feature of malakoplakia?
what is pathognomonic for interstitial cystitis?
what causes non-infectious cystitis?
cytotoxic antitumor durgs such as cyclophosphamide or methotrexate
radiation to bladder
most common type of bladder cancer
transitional cell carcinoma
second most common form of bladder cancer
risk factors for bladder ca
long term use of analgesics
radiation to bladder area
exposure to aryl amines
if bladder cancer is related to schistosomiasis, what is most common type?