Quiz 2 Lower Urinary Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Lower Urinary Tract Deck (22):
1

is bilateral or unilateral duplication of ureter more common?

bilateral is rare

2

what do anomalies of ureterovesical junction cause?

urinary reflux

3

what do 70% of children with UTIs have?

vesicoureteral reflux: abnormal flow of urine from bladder to ureters and possibly to kidneys

4

difference between ureteritis follicularis and ureteritis cystica

follicularis: fine granular appearance
cystica: inflammatory state which causes mucosa to appear as if sprinkled with fine cysts.

5

where does unilateral vs bilateral obstruction of the ureter occur?

unilateral: higher up urinary tract
bilateral: closer to bladder

6

what are majority of ureteral malignancies?

transitional cell carcinomas

7

bladder exstropy
- this causes increased risk for what?

bladder can lie as an open sac due to failure of normal development of anterior wall of abdomen and of blader.
- increased risk for adenocarcinoma of colon

8

urachal cysts can become what?

bladder adenocarcinoma

9

most common cause of bacterial cystitis?

E. Coli

10

what urinary microscopy findings point to UTI?

white blood cells
multiple rod shaped bacilli between WBCs

11

what are atypical agents in cystitis?

DM
immunocompromised
urinary obstruction

12

schiztosomiasis

common in middle east
result of chronic inflammation of bladder

13

chronic cystitis

changes in bladder lining
malakoplakia (patter of bladder change that results in chronic inflammation)
mucosal plaques

14

hist of malakoplakia

foamy histiocytes with distinct round basophilic inclusions (michaelis-Gutmann bodies)

15

what is pathognomonic feature of malakoplakia?

Michaelis-Gutmann bodies

16

what is pathognomonic for interstitial cystitis?

Hunner's Ulcers

17

what causes non-infectious cystitis?

cytotoxic antitumor durgs such as cyclophosphamide or methotrexate
radiation to bladder

18

most common type of bladder cancer

transitional cell carcinoma

19

second most common form of bladder cancer

squamous cell

20

risk factors for bladder ca

cigarette smoking
long term use of analgesics
radiation to bladder area
exposure to aryl amines
schistosomiasis

21

if bladder cancer is related to schistosomiasis, what is most common type?

SCC
then TCC

22

does TCC reach the basement membrane?

no