Crime and deviance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Crime and deviance Deck (43):
1

What is crime?

any behaviour which breaks the criminal law of society (formal legal law)

2

What is deviance?

Any behaviour which breaks the norms of society

3

What is legal deviance?

breaking the social norms of society, but not the law

4

What is illegal deviance?

breaking the norms of society which have been written as laws

5

What is social order?

How society is stable and ordered, and how people cooperate

6

What does indictable mean?

Can carry a prison sentence

7

What does non-indictable mean?

does not carry a prison sentence

8

What is formal social control?

control usually dealing with illegal deviance or deviance which poses a threat to society. It can involve using force,

9

What is informal social control?

carried out by family, media, religion, the education system etc. (through socialisation). It operates through people showing praise or disapproval

10

What is morality of the future?

actions of deviants/criminals that contribute to change in societies values

11

What is boundary maintenance?

Boundary maintenance reminds us what is appropriate behaviour

12

What is a safety valve?

A way of letting of steam against society without threatening is stability

13

What is a warning function?

when crime shows that an element of the social structure isn't working and needs to change

14

What is social solidarity?

a sense of togetherness

15

what is anomie?

when norms and values become unclear and break down

16

what is the legitimate opportunity structure?

when society provides the legal means of achieving cultural goals

17

what is strain?

a feeling one gets when the legitimate opportunity structure doesn't provide enough means for people to reach the cultural goals set by society

18

RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is conformity?

individuals accept the goal and strive to achieve them legitimately

19

RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is innovation?

individuals accept the goal but use illegitimate means to achieve it

20

RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is ritualism?

individuals give up trying but have internalised the legitimate means so follow rules for their own sake

21

RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is retreatism?

individuals reject both the goals and the legitimate means and become dropouts

22

RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is rebellion?

individuals reject society's existing goals and means, but replace them with new ones to try and bring about revolutionary change/a new society

23

What is a manifest function?

the obvious and indented functions of crime/deviance

24

What is a latent function?

the unintended function that crime/deviance performs

25

what is status frustration?

a sense of frustration/strain with not being given any status within school

26

what is alternative status hierarchy?

when someone turns to a different way of gaining status and power

27

what is the illegitimate opportunity structure?

the opportunities that exists to allow people to commit crime

28

what is a criminal subculture?

working class, organised criminal networks which provide a learning environment for young criminals, like a business (members work up the crime career ladder), largely concerned with utilitarian crime

29

what is a conflict subculture?

developed in areas with little organised adult crime. They focus on gaining respect through gang violence

30

What is a retreatist subculture?

comprised of people who have failed to succeed in both legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures (they are double failures). This mainly focuses around illegal drug abuse

31

What are focal concerns?

Working class values

32

Who came up with the idea of focal concerns?

Miller

33

FOCAL CONCERN - trouble

when someone enjoys conflict with other people

34

FOCAL CONCERN - toughness

showing physical strength

35

FOCAL CONCERN - smartness

being well dressed and verbally sharp

36

FOCAL CONCERN - excitement

being thrill seekers

37

FOCAL CONCERN - fate

feeling a lack of control over their future. They don't fear punishment

38

FOCAL CONCERN - autonomy

not wanting to be told what to do

39

What is the 'magical' solution?

Mike Brake used the term 'magical' to explain these working class solutions to their problems as they don't do anything to solve the class structure of society - rebellion simply makes them feel better

40

what is resistance through rituals?

use of style, language and behaviour as a symbolic form of rebellion

41

What are socially approved values?

values that we are happy to express publicly

42

What are subterranean values?

values that are not socially approved of, e.g. racist and sexist values

43

What are techniques of neutralisation?

justifications/excuses for why delinquents did something. They include:
- denial of responsibility
- denial of victim
- denial of injury
- condemnation of the condemners
- appeal to higher loyalties