Flashcards in Crime and deviance Deck (43):
What is crime?
any behaviour which breaks the criminal law of society (formal legal law)
What is deviance?
Any behaviour which breaks the norms of society
What is legal deviance?
breaking the social norms of society, but not the law
What is illegal deviance?
breaking the norms of society which have been written as laws
What is social order?
How society is stable and ordered, and how people cooperate
What does indictable mean?
Can carry a prison sentence
What does non-indictable mean?
does not carry a prison sentence
What is formal social control?
control usually dealing with illegal deviance or deviance which poses a threat to society. It can involve using force,
What is informal social control?
carried out by family, media, religion, the education system etc. (through socialisation). It operates through people showing praise or disapproval
What is morality of the future?
actions of deviants/criminals that contribute to change in societies values
What is boundary maintenance?
Boundary maintenance reminds us what is appropriate behaviour
What is a safety valve?
A way of letting of steam against society without threatening is stability
What is a warning function?
when crime shows that an element of the social structure isn't working and needs to change
What is social solidarity?
a sense of togetherness
what is anomie?
when norms and values become unclear and break down
what is the legitimate opportunity structure?
when society provides the legal means of achieving cultural goals
what is strain?
a feeling one gets when the legitimate opportunity structure doesn't provide enough means for people to reach the cultural goals set by society
RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is conformity?
individuals accept the goal and strive to achieve them legitimately
RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is innovation?
individuals accept the goal but use illegitimate means to achieve it
RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is ritualism?
individuals give up trying but have internalised the legitimate means so follow rules for their own sake
RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is retreatism?
individuals reject both the goals and the legitimate means and become dropouts
RESPONSE TO STRAIN - what is rebellion?
individuals reject society's existing goals and means, but replace them with new ones to try and bring about revolutionary change/a new society
What is a manifest function?
the obvious and indented functions of crime/deviance
What is a latent function?
the unintended function that crime/deviance performs
what is status frustration?
a sense of frustration/strain with not being given any status within school
what is alternative status hierarchy?
when someone turns to a different way of gaining status and power
what is the illegitimate opportunity structure?
the opportunities that exists to allow people to commit crime
what is a criminal subculture?
working class, organised criminal networks which provide a learning environment for young criminals, like a business (members work up the crime career ladder), largely concerned with utilitarian crime
what is a conflict subculture?
developed in areas with little organised adult crime. They focus on gaining respect through gang violence
What is a retreatist subculture?
comprised of people who have failed to succeed in both legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures (they are double failures). This mainly focuses around illegal drug abuse
What are focal concerns?
Working class values
Who came up with the idea of focal concerns?
FOCAL CONCERN - trouble
when someone enjoys conflict with other people
FOCAL CONCERN - toughness
showing physical strength
FOCAL CONCERN - smartness
being well dressed and verbally sharp
FOCAL CONCERN - excitement
being thrill seekers
FOCAL CONCERN - fate
feeling a lack of control over their future. They don't fear punishment
FOCAL CONCERN - autonomy
not wanting to be told what to do
What is the 'magical' solution?
Mike Brake used the term 'magical' to explain these working class solutions to their problems as they don't do anything to solve the class structure of society - rebellion simply makes them feel better
what is resistance through rituals?
use of style, language and behaviour as a symbolic form of rebellion
What are socially approved values?
values that we are happy to express publicly
What are subterranean values?
values that are not socially approved of, e.g. racist and sexist values