Flashcards in Theory Deck (23):
What are functional prerequisities?
Basic needs that are met by different institutions
What is a value consensus?
A basis of unity and co-operation (agreement)
What is a social equilibrium?
A state ordered society
What is a collective conscience?
Agreement on what is right or wrong
Who developed the organic analogy and what is it?
Parsons - three similarities between society and a biological organism:
2. the needs of the system
What are individual actions?
each action is governed by norms or rules. Clusters of norms are displayed within status roles.
What are status roles?
social roles/the expected norms that govern the behaviour of someone (e.g a teacher). Status roles come in clusters known as institutions
What is an institution?
A place/thing such as family, the media, religion and education. Institutions are clustered into subsystems
What is a sub system?
Systems that fit together to form society e.g economic and religious subsystems
What is social differentiation?
when a number of subsystems take over the functions formerly performed by only one sub system
What is historical materialism?
looks at how humans have provided for material needs throughout history
What is class polarisation?
when society divides into two classes (minority bourgeoisie and majority proletariat)
What is alienation?
when people feel separate from the products they make
What is polarisation?
When the two classes absorb all of the people in the middle, resulting in the bourgeoisie becoming increasingly rich and the proletariat growing, but becoming poorer
What are means of production?
things which allow goods to be made
What is economic determinism?
economic factors are the sole cause of inequality in society, and are the only source of change
What is dual consciousness?
ideas are partly controlled by the bourgeoisie, but they are also formed around their own direct experiences of poverty and exploitation
Who came up with political lesbianism and what is it?
radical feminists- they see heterosexual relationships as 'sleeping with the enemy' and lesbianism as the only non-oppressive form of sexuality
Who came up with separatism and what is it?
radical feminists- living apart from men and creating a new culture of female independence, without patriarchy
Who came up with consciousness raising and what is it?
radical feminists- through sharing experiences, women learn that they share the same problems
Who came up with familism and what is it?
Barrett- suggests that the dominant ideology enforced in a capitalist society presents the nuclear family as the only place where woman can attain fulfilment
What is power feminism?
instead of adopting victim mentality women should celebrate their new found powers and opportunities