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Flashcards in Theory Deck (23):

What are functional prerequisities?

Basic needs that are met by different institutions


What is a value consensus?

A basis of unity and co-operation (agreement)


What is a social equilibrium?

A state ordered society


What is a collective conscience?

Agreement on what is right or wrong


Who developed the organic analogy and what is it?

Parsons - three similarities between society and a biological organism:
1. systems
2. the needs of the system
3. functions


What are individual actions?

each action is governed by norms or rules. Clusters of norms are displayed within status roles.


What are status roles?

social roles/the expected norms that govern the behaviour of someone (e.g a teacher). Status roles come in clusters known as institutions


What is an institution?

A place/thing such as family, the media, religion and education. Institutions are clustered into subsystems


What is a sub system?

Systems that fit together to form society e.g economic and religious subsystems


What is social differentiation?

when a number of subsystems take over the functions formerly performed by only one sub system


What is historical materialism?

looks at how humans have provided for material needs throughout history


What is class polarisation?

when society divides into two classes (minority bourgeoisie and majority proletariat)


What is alienation?

when people feel separate from the products they make


What is polarisation?

When the two classes absorb all of the people in the middle, resulting in the bourgeoisie becoming increasingly rich and the proletariat growing, but becoming poorer


What are means of production?

things which allow goods to be made


What is economic determinism?

economic factors are the sole cause of inequality in society, and are the only source of change


What is dual consciousness?

ideas are partly controlled by the bourgeoisie, but they are also formed around their own direct experiences of poverty and exploitation


Who came up with political lesbianism and what is it?

radical feminists- they see heterosexual relationships as 'sleeping with the enemy' and lesbianism as the only non-oppressive form of sexuality


Who came up with separatism and what is it?

radical feminists- living apart from men and creating a new culture of female independence, without patriarchy


Who came up with consciousness raising and what is it?

radical feminists- through sharing experiences, women learn that they share the same problems


Who came up with familism and what is it?

Barrett- suggests that the dominant ideology enforced in a capitalist society presents the nuclear family as the only place where woman can attain fulfilment


What is power feminism?

instead of adopting victim mentality women should celebrate their new found powers and opportunities


What is equality feminism?

women support feminism but don't like the name because of the negative stereotypes attached to early feminist movement, so they call themselves 'new' or 'equality' feminists