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Flashcards in DIT antibiotics Deck (36):
1

What antibiotic activates autolysins?

Surprisingly penicllins do it. (in addition to wall disruption)

2

What is penicillin used for?

Basically G+ and then some G negative cocci (neisseria) and spirochetes (syphillis treatment)

3

What are theoxacillin, nafcillin and dicloxacillin used for (the ones that don't start with am (so none aminopenicillins))

Staph aureus except MRSA b/c MRSA altered penicillin-binding target site.

Use nat for staph

4

Aminopenillins are used for what? mnemonic alert

G+ bacteria and...

HELPSS kill enterococci

H influ
E coli
Listeria
Proteus
Salmonella
Shigella
Enterococci

5

What are ticarcillin, piperacillin used for?

Antipseudomonals. USED WITH Beta lactamase inhibitors b/c susceptible to penicillinase

Psuedomonas
G- rods.

6

Neonate infection common tx?

Well risk of G- rods causing harm or some G+, so use a wide spectrum antibiotic

Ampicillin + clavulonic acid

7

Beta lactamase inhibitors?

CAST

Clavulanic Acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam

8

What are the 1st gen cephalosporins? mnemonic alert

What do they cover?

Cefazolin and cephalexin G+ and PEcK

Proteus
E coli
Klebsiella

UTI drugs and URIs and prophylaxis for viridans strep endocarditis

9

What are second gen cephalosporins?

What do they cover? mnemonic alert

Cefoxitin, Cefaclor, Cefuroxime, Cefproxil

HEN PEcK (and G+)

H influ
Enterobacter
Neisseria (although resistance)
Serratia

Proteus
E coli
Klebsiella

10

What are third gen cephs?

What do they cover?

Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cefdinir (the only one's with a T in it before last syllable, other than 5th gen Ceftaroline)

Neisseria is much better. G- meningitis and ghonorrea

STILL CATCHES strep pneumo, WHY EMPIRIC for meningitis

11

What ceph covers pseudomonas?

Ceftazidime (third gen)
Cefepime (4th gen)

12

What are 4th gen cephs? What doe they cover/

Cefepime

Psuedomonas
G+

GREAT BROAD SPECTRUM

13

What do cephalosporins suck at? menmonic

LAME against

Listeria
Atypicals (chlamyd and myco)
MRSA
Enterococci

So pneumo, add azythromycin to cover atypicals just in case

14

Side effects of cephalosporins?

hypersensitivity
Vit K deficiency
Nephrotoxic if combined with aminoglycoside

15

What cephalosporin is used prophylactic to protect from staph?

Cefazolin (first gen)

16

What is aztreonam?

Monocyclic Beta lactam

G-'s. And aminoglycoside pretender. E coli, klebsiella, pseudomonas, serratia

Synergistic with aminoglycosides.

No cross allergies with penicillin so use for allergic!

No kidney issue

17

Carbipenems are good for what?

resistant to beta lactamase. (always use cilastatin with it)

Always add cilastin b/c imipenim is lasting with celastin so kidney won't turn it off

BIG Gun for bad disease and BROAD SPECTRUM

Empiric of life threatening infections. Throw this at them until you cover it

NO MRSA (duh, think of resistance)

18

What is unique of meropenem?

Less seizures than other carbapenems and not broken down by dehydropeptidase in kidney, SO NO cilastatin need

19

Carbapenem toxicity? What is the big one?

GI distress, skin rash, CNS TOXIC (SEIZURES WITH IMEPENEM) is the biggie

20

Vanco is not orally absorbed (just a fun fact to know). What is the toxicity of vanco? How do you resist it? mnemonic alert

NOT

Nephrotoxic
Ototoxic
Thrombophlebitis

Red man syndrome: whole body flushes b/c mast cell degranulation (not IGE)

Pretreat with antihistamines

21

What hits 30s and what hit 50s?

buy AT 30, CCELL at 50

Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines

Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Erythromycin (macrolides)
Lincomycin
Linezolid

22

What is linezolid useful for? Mechanism?

23s subunit of 50 subunit.

Oral for Vanco resis enterococci and MRSA so patients can go home

23

Tetracyclines are used for what? mnemonic alert

VACCUUM The BedRoom

Vibrio cholera
Acne
Chlamydia
Ureaplasma ureacyticum
Mycoplasma pneumo
Tularemia
H pyloir
Borrelia burgdorferi
Rickettsia

24

What are amino glycosides used for?

severe G- rods and synergistic with beta lactam

25

Aminoglycoside pnemonic

GNATS caNNOT kill anaerobes

Nephrotoxic (cephalosporin combo)
Neuromuscular blockade
Ototoxicity
Teratogen (ototoxic)

26

Macrolides bind what? What drug shares the mechanism?

23s subunit and can't do translocation (macro slides)

Same as linezolid mechanism

27

Toxicity of macrolides?

Diarrhea, PROLONGED QT (some risky Meds can prolong QT), rare acute cholestatic hepatitis M OF CRACK AMIGOS

sotolol, risperidone, MACROLIDES, chloroqoine, protease inhibitors, quinidine, thiazides

28

Resistance of macrolide?

methylation of 23S

29

Mechanism of chloramphinocl?

Use?

Toxicity?

50s subunit

Menignitis

TOXICITIES KNOW! GRAY BABY SYNDROME (vomiting, toxic metab of it build up and poor muscle tone, CV COLLAPSE), anemia, aplastic anemia

Gray baby b/c UDP glucoronyltransferase is shitty and metabolites accumulate

30

Tx of gray baby?

Stop chloramphincol

Exchange transfusion

PHENOBARBITOL increases liver protein produciton (and UDP glucoronyltransferase! also how you treat criggler najjar type II)

31

Clindamycin is for what?

Anerobics (aspiriation), and oral infecitons

Anearobics ABOVE diaphragm and metronidazole is below diaphragm

32

Toxicity of clindamycin?

Pseudomembranous colitis (c diff!)!!! dang

33

Macrolides are used for what? mnemonic alert

PUS

pneumonia (ATYPICAL)
URI
STDs

34

Polymyxin mechanism?

Use?

Toxic?

Cationic detergent

LAST RESORT for G- resistant bugs

Toxic if IV b/c neurotoxic and nephrotoxic

So used topically

35

Prophylaxis meds? pg 188 First aid

cards if you want

36

Drugs to avoid in preggers? mnemonic alert

SAFe Children Require That Good Care

Sulfa: Kernicterus
Aminoglycosides: Ototox
Fluoroquinolones: cart damage
Clarithromycin: embryotoxic
Tetracyclines: discolored teath
Ribavirin: teratogenic
Griseofulvin: teratogenic
Chlroampenicol: gray baby