Flashcards in DIT Protozoa Deck (43):
Pathology with strawberry tongue?
Scarlet Fever and Kawasaki are the biggies
Severe diarrhea in HIV? How is it prevented?
It is in water supplies, but water treatment plant filtration systems get rid of oocysts
mild diarrhea in immunocompetent
Giardia is from what? Symptoms?
What does it look like?
From cysts from an animal that shit in a stream (campers worry about it)
trophozoites (4 flagella and spins/tumbles) look like two nucleus in a pear shape
Greasy fatty stools b/c trophozoites block absorption of fats
Tx for foul smelling fatty diarrhea in a camper who has cysts and trophozoites in stool?
How do you recognize cryptosporidium?
oocysts in acid fast stain in shit
Owl eye appearance in diarrhea?
Trophozoite of giardia
Dysentery is from what bacteria? and from what protozoa?
Ameoba cysts look like what?
What organ is susceptible to abscess?
It invades GI to make bloody shit
It can hit the liver and cause liver abscess
Cysts have multiple nuclei (2-4)
Metronidazole to kill trophozoites
Iodoquinol is to kill cysts
Metronidazole treat what? mnemonic alert
GET GAP on the Metro
Trichamonas vaginalis presentation?
Vaginitis with could smelling green discharge
Higher vaginal pH
F's for trichomonas
Foul smelling discharge
triad: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalis and intracranial calcification in fetus
Ring lesion on MRI of head or aids patient needs biopsy for what?
Toxoplasma or primary CNS lymphoma can present as a similar way
Tx of toxoplasma?
Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine
Where do you get naegleria fowler?mnemonic
What does it cause?
Think swimming inf FRESHWATER b/c Nalgine has fresh water containing Naegleria
Ameobas hit spinal fluid and cause RAPIDLY FATAL meningoencephalitis
A few survivors with amphotericin
What is trypanosome brucei?
African sleeping sickness form a fly
Tx: SURamin is SURe nice to go to sleep. MELArsoprol is for CNS penetration and MELAtonin helps you sleep
What is trypanosome cruzi? What does it cause?
Protozoa causing big things
(from the shit if a kissing bug)
What is triad from leishmania donovani?
How did you get it?
leishmania DONOVANi is DONOVAN mcnab: spiking footballs, drunk hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia b/c I said so
From the Sandfly
Fever cycles of malaria are how long for each bug? And what causes it?
Ovale and vivax: 48 hours
Falciparium: irregular severe fevers
Malariae: 72 hours
When RBC's lyse
What plasmodium is most severe? what is latent?
Falciparum is severe (longest name and longest list symptoms), parasitized RBC can occlude capillaries in even the brain
Ovale and Vivax are doormant so you need primaquine (V b/c girls have Vaginas and never go away)
Which plasmodium has a banana shaped gametocyte?
Falciparum: b/c longest name and longest list of symptoms and longest shaped gametocyte
how you got it?
Fever and hemolytic anemia
RING trophozoite in RBC and Maltese cross in RBC! (different RBCs will have different look)
Scotch tape test is for what bug?
Enterobius (a roundwormworm) is treated with bendazole (b/c worms are bendy)
Life cycle of ascaris?
Huge ASS worm is ascaris
Swallow eggs, eggs hatch in stomach and penetrate into small bowel. Then larvae move through venous system and into lungs where the break out and then go up trachea to be swallowed.
What can cause loffler eosinophilic pneumonitis?
Ascaris b/c life cycle brings it through the lungs
Tx of ascaris?
Bendazole or pyrantel pamoate
What worms do you eat?
Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella
spells EAT. Trichenella is food, the others are fecal-oral
What does trichinella come from? What does it cause?
Eating undercooked meat, causes myositis and periorbital edema
Cycle of strongyloides?
From soil through skin, in blood, through alveoli and then swallowed.
Similar to ascaris, but this is not eaten and is instead through skin
Tx is Ivermectin or bendazole
Symptoms of strongyloides?
Intestinal infection with puke, diarrhea and epigastric pain (like an ulcer)
Life of ancylostoma and nectar?
Same as strongyloides and ascaris
Causes anemia b/c sucks blood from intestinal wall
Bendazoles and pyrantel pamoate
What infections do you get form walking in dirt barefoot? mnemonic
Strongyloides, Ancylostoma and Necator
Undercooked pork causing GI issues what do you think?
Taenia solium. Tx is praziquantel
What do you consider if there is an immigrant having new CNS symptoms? Like seizure and psychiatric symptoms
Taenia solium (tapeworm from ingested eggs in undercooked pork)
it is neurocysticercosis and imaging shows what looks like hallowed out spot
What determines the type of infection with taenia solum?
If ingested larvae, you get intestinal infection, if you eat eggs, you get cysticercosis of any tissue, even the brain
Tx is praziquentel for intestine
Albendazole for neurocystecosis with dexa so inflammation doesn't hurt CNS more
What can happen from diphyllobothrium?
Fish tapeworm: B12 deficiency b/c competing for cobalamin
Schistosoma life cycle?
From feces of human, picked up by snails where they then spread to people
Splenomegaly with itching after swimming?
Think schistosoma b/c get stuck in portal system and cause portal HTN
Squamous cell carcinoma of bladder is associated with what type of fluke?
Presentation: hematuria in immigrant from central america or egypt
Schistosoma haematobium in egyption with hematuria.
Tx of schistosoma?
Undercooked crab meat caused chronic bronchitis and hemoptysis from what?
Chronic bronchitis and hemoptisus
Pigmented gallstones and/or cholangio carcinoma should make you think of what?
Clonorchis sinensis from undercooked fish
What causes elephantiasis?
Wuchereria bancrofti. "whatcha wearinga down in your crotch"