Flashcards in DIT Lymphoma/Leukemia Deck (35):
What virus is able to cause Hodgkin lymphoma?
What is a big factor in prognosis of Hodgkin?
Lots of lymphocytes compared to Reed sternberg
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is most common lymphoma in adults (happens in elderly)
What is the mutation
t 14;18 in 30%
14 is heavy chain and 18 is Bcl-2
What is most common lymphoma in kids?
Translocation in follicular lymphoma? It is in adults with waxing an waining lymphadenopathy
t14;18 (in adults again. (this is the mutation seen in adults apparently))
14 is heavy chain and 18 is bcd-2
WhatNHL in kids is associated with EBV?
Causes JAw lesion in africa
What is genes in burkitt lymphoma? mnemonic
t(8;14). Translocation of c-myc oncogene onto heavy chain
Write Burkitt so B looks like 8 and t's look like 14
(don't confuse with 14;18 in diffuse large cell and follicular lymphoma with is in adults and bcl-2)
What lymphoma has starry sky?
Burkitt (8urci14) to remember tranlocation and c-myc.
Only lymphocytes with interspersed macrophage which wate a ton of cancer cells
What is genes for mantle cell lymphoma?
Think of man11e (for 11)
11 is for cyclin d to have more so more S phase of cell
manD1e (mantle) or man11e (mantle) cell lymphoma
older MALEs b/c MANtle
What is the NHL equivalent for CLL?
Small lymphocytic lymphoma
What is MALToma associated with?
Adult T cell lymphoma is aggressive. It is caused by what?
HTLV-1. Aggressive and associated with IV drug abuse.
What lymphoma is associated with celiac?
Intestinal (enteropathy-associated) T-cell
Most comon lymphoma in adults?
Adults: diffuse large B cell
Where do you find hodgkin lymphoma in the body?
In the population?
Bimodal age: so 20 or 65 usually
What type of cancer is PAS +?
Who gets it?
ALL (AML is PAS-)
Down syndrome (ALL fall Down)
Who gets AML?
Old people and down's syndrome or people with aplastic anemia
What has smudge cells?
What is philedalphia chromosome? What is the translocation?
Philadelphia CreaML cheese
It is bcr-abl
CLL can cause what kind of hemolytic anemia?
What type of chronic leukemia is more likely to progress to acute?
CML is much more likely (80%)
CLL is only 10% progressing
What drug targets bcr-abl?
imatinib hits the tyrosine kinase.
What are the translocations?
9;22 philly CML bcr-abl
8;14 Burkitt: c-myc
11;14 Mantle cell: cyclin d1
14;18 diffuse large cell and follicular bcl-2
8;21 s down syndrome b/c more likely to have the translocaiton with extra 21
What is pseudo-pelter-huet anomaly?
Sign of Myelodysplastic syndrome.
Neutrophils with bilobed nuclei (connected by thin filament of chromatin)
Looks like ted roosevelt glasses
What is myelodysplastic syndrome? what is risk?
Stem cell disorder of ineffective hematopoeisis. Risk of becoming AML
Pseudo pelger huet anomaly seen in smere (two nuclear masses looking like teddy roosevelt glasses)
What are the three chronic myeloproliferative disorders? What is the common mutation?
JAK2: hematopoetic growth factor signaling
What is erythromelalgia?
Severe burning pain and reddish discoloration from episodic blood clots in vessels of extremities
Rare but classic symptom of polycythemia vera
Essential thrombocytosis is caused by what?
Too much platelets. JAK2 mutation
Causes thrombosis or bleeding b/c platelets are not functional
What do cancerous cells look like in MM?
Plasma cells have clumps of chromatin looking like a clock and cytoplasm outside nucleus is cleared out.
Fried egg loock
4 common findings with multiple myeloma?
Cause of each?
Anemia: marrow filled with plasma cells
Renal insufficiency: immunoglobulin clogging up tubules
Back pain and Hypercalcemiacaused by local osteolytic factors that activate osteoclasts and inhibit osteoblasts
Findings in labs of blood and urine for MM?
Electrophoresis shows M spike
urine is Bence Jones proteins: Ig light chains in urine deced with electrophoresis
What are reouleaux formation?
RBCs are stacked in peripheral smear with MM
What is associated with Waldienstrom macroglobulinemia?
Similar to MM but some differences:
Hyper IgM (unlike MM which is IgA usually), and no bone lytic lesions like MM
What stains positive for TRAP? Mnemonic alert
Hairy cell leukemia.
TRAP the Hairy animal