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Flashcards in DIT Onc Deck (42):
1

How does brain use ketone bodies?

Makes them into acetyl coA and puts them into TCA cycle

2

What does cyclin D do?

Activates CDK4 which phosphorylates Rb protein

3

What does Rb do?

sits ontop of E2F so no transcription factor is blocked and transition from G1 to S phase

4

What cancer has DPC mutation?

tumor suppression: Deleted in Pancreatic cancer

5

What are Ras mutations?

GTPase (most common oncogene abnormality) that cause a MAP kinase pathway

6

What cancers are associated with K-Ras?

Kolon, panKreas (lung)

GTPase (most common oncogene abnormality)

7

H-Ras associations?

Hematuria. Kidney and bladde

GTPase (most common oncogene abnormality)

8

N-Ras associations?

Melanomas and heme malignancies

GTPase (most common oncogene abnormality)

9

What is a ret mutation causing?

What cancers associated?

tyrosine kinase is always turned on

MEN 2A and 2B (PPM and PMM)

10

C-myc is what? Assiociated with what?

transcription factor with bukitt (burCitt lymphoma) (EBV)

11

What are L-myc and n-myc associated with?

transcription factor for:

Lung tumor in Lmyc
N myc is neuroblastoma

12

What is a big risk cancer for pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

What does aflotoxin risk of?

Smoking is pancreas cancer (lots of other shit too including renal)

13

What cancers are at risk from ionizing radiation?

AML, CML, Thyroid

14

Which UV ray type is bad?

UVB for Bad (A is a maybe causes problems, not sure. C is blocked by Ozone)

15

Nucleotide excision repair cancer risk?

What is the process?

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Nuclease removes damaged bases and polymerase fills it in

16

MMR repair mutation risk?

HNPCC

17

Nonhomologous end joining mutation risk?

Ataxia talengectasia

18

Tuberous sclerosis risk for cancer?

giant cell astrocytoma, renal angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma

19

What causes squamous cell cancer of the bladder that is a microbe?

Schistosoma haematobium

20

What microbe causes chonalgiocarcionma?

chloorchis sinensis (liver fluke)

21

Naphthelen is what type of cancer risk?

transitional cell carcinoma of bladder

22

Tumor grade vs stage?

Which is usually more prognostic value?

Grade is degree of cellular differentiation and mitotic activity. 4 is anapestic

Stage is degree of spread. T is size, N is nodal involvement, M is metastasis

STAGE IS MORE PROGNOSTIC VALUE

23

What are findings expecting to see under scope for an anaplastic cell?

High nucleus to cytoplasm ratio

large nucleolus
clumping of chromatin
many mitotic figures

MAKES SENSE b/c often multiploidy

24

If a tumor has a low differentiation, what is the grade?

higher grade b/c not resembling the cells they came from. closer to anaplastic

25

What are carcinomas?

what is the staining?

Malignant tumor from epithelium.

Adenocarcionmas are glandular. papillary have projections

cytokeratin stain

26

How do carcinomas spread? what are the exceptions (you can figure them out. there are 4)

Spread lymphatically. exceptions that spread hematogenously are:

Renal cell (into renal vein)
Hepatocellular (into hepatic vein)
Choriocarcinoma (invasive by nature)
Follicular carcinoma of thyroid (b/c you remember that)

27

Pancreatic tumor markers?

CA 19-9 and CEA

28

Alpha fetoprotein is up with what?

Hepatocellular carcinoma, and testicular tumors, mixed germ cell tumors, yolk sac tumor

29

S-100 is marker for what?

Neural crest: melanomas, neural tumors, schwannomas, langerhans histiocytosis

30

Tumor marker TRAP is for what?

TRAP the hairy animal

31

Psamomma bodies are in what? mnemonic

PSaMMoma

Papillary of thyroid
Serous papillary cystadenoma
Meningioma
Malignant mesothelima

32

Malignant mesothelial tumors are often ending with what?

Sarcoma. angiosarcoma (benign form would be hemangioma), osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma...

33

Smooth muscle cancer vs striated?

Leioma and leiomyosarcoma are smooth

rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma are striated

34

How do tumors get blood supply?

Induce angiogenesis:

bFGF is basic fibroblast growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor si VEGF

35

Mnemonic for order of cancers metastasizing to the liver?

Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver

Colon>>stomach>Pancreas>breast>lung

think of shit that drains to liver.

High LFTs, hepatomegaly, dysfucniton signs

36

Mnemonic for things that metastasize to brain?

Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia

Lung Breast Skin (melanoma) Kidney (RCC), GI (colon)

37

Bone mets are?

PB KTL (lead kettle)

Prostat Breast Kidney Thyroid/Testes Lung

Breast is blastic or lytic
Prostate is lytic

38

Paraneoplastic issues with small cell lung cancer?

A's

ACTH: Cushing
ADH: SIADH
Anti presynaptic Ca++ channels at NMJ so can't release signal: Lambert Eaton Myasthenic syndrome

39

Paraneoplastic with squamous cell cancer of lung

Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy

PTHrp acts like PTH

40

Other tumors that secrete PTHrP?

Squamous cell lung, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, squamous of head and neck

41

Cancers that release epo?

Potentially Really High Hematocrit

Pheo, RCC, HCC, hemangioma

rarely leiomyoma

42

When do you start colon cancer screening if family history?

at age 40 or 10 years younger than when family member was diagnosed