DIT Cardiology part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DIT Cardiology part 2 Deck (27):
1

What causes smooth muscle relaxation?

activated myosin phosphatase (removes phosphate from myosin, so opposite of myosin light chain kinase)

That is activated by cGMP! which is done by NO activating gunylyl cyclase from arginine and nitrates)

2

Type A dissection vs type B? Mnemonic alert.

Tx for each

Type A invovles Ascending Aorta

Type B is Beyond the Branches

A is emergency surgery
B is medical treatment

GIVE BETA BLOCKERS to decrease slope of increase of BP so each beat pounds it, and this decreases intensity of rise of BP

3

aliskiren?

renin inhibitor

4

What drugs are for HTN in preggers? mnemonic alert

Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine

Hydralazine
Methyldopa
Labetalol
Nifedipine

5

Minoxidil mechanism?

Opens potassium channel and hyper polarizes smooth muscle to cause relaxation of smooth muscle.

Severe HTN

6

Patient has no ST elevation but chest pain and a new LBBB. What is it?

NSTEMI. Would still have cardiac markers.

7

What does a Q wave mean?

Evolving or previous infarct

8

What can cause dilated cardiomyopathy? Mnemonic

ABCCCCD

Alcohol abuse
Ber1 Ber1 (wet, thyamine)
Chronic cocaine and booze
Chronic myocardial ischemia
Coxsackie B
Chagas (everything big with chagas)
Doxorubicin
Hemachromatosis

9

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinical findings?

Histology?

Autosomal dominant

Lateral highest impulse
S4
Aortic stenosis b/c hypertrophied septum interferes withouflow MURMUR WORSE WITH VALSALVA (only time that happens)

Histo: disarrayed fibers

10

If you hear Loffler, what do you think?

eosinophils. In this case, can cause restrictive cardiomyopathy

11

What are causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy? Mnemonic alert:

LEASH to restrict your heart

Loffler
Endocardial fibroelastosis (congen)
Amyloidosis
Sarcoidosis
Hemochromatosis

12

What is libman sacks endocarditis?

SLE causes LSE

Sterile vegitations on both sides of valve (unlike infective which is normally just one side of the valve)

13

What are aschoff bodies?

Anitschkow bodies?

granuloma with giant cell in the heart with Rheumatic heart disease

Macrophage with ovoid wavy rod like nucleus

14

What causes kussmaul sign?

JVD with inspiration is from CHRONIC CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS (usually lupus)

b/c decreased capacity of RV

15

Tumor in heart in adults?

In kids? (association)?

Left atrial myxoma

Rhabdomyoma: TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS (the R in Hamartomas mnemonic). Along with astrocytoma and angiomyolipoma.

Mets are lymphoma and melanoma

16

Vasculitis in asthmatic?

Churg Strauss

17

Arthralgia, plapable purpura on butt and legs with GI pain? Followed URI?

Henoch Schonlein

IgA complex deposition

IgA nephropathy can come with it (from the URI)

18

Hep B with vasculitis?

Tx?

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Corticosteroids wither without cyclophosphamide (same tx as wagerers)

19

Temporalis wasting adnd big pulsating temporal artery?

temporal giant cell arteritis and tx with corticosteroids

20

Low pulse of arms with young asian women? Night sweats, arthritis and myalgia?

Takayasu arteritis (basically same as gian tecll arteritis) just of Aorta (lots of A's)

Corticosteroids is tx

21

Strawberry hemangioma?

Benign hemangioma of cutaneous surface of capillaries in infants

Spontaneously regresses.

DONT CONFUSE WITH PORT WINE STAIN (darker and won't go away)

22

Pyogenic granuloma?

Raised capillary hemangioma and associated with preggers/trauma

23

Cystic hygroma?

cavernous lymphangioma of neck associated with Turner syndrome

24

Glomus tumor?

benign painful tumor under fingernails

25

Describe kaposi sarcoma in older men vs AIDS?

Endothelial malignancy. Prolif of vessels and/or lymphatics

Mistaken for bacillary angiomatosis.

Most common in HIV and HHV8: NEED TO BIOPSY

26

Angiosarcoma?

Blood vessel malignancy in face, scalp, neck and breast

Associated with prior radiation therapy

27

High Yield vasculitis q's on pg 185 of DIT

Nice.