Flashcards in DIT Cardiology part 2 Deck (27)
What causes smooth muscle relaxation?
activated myosin phosphatase (removes phosphate from myosin, so opposite of myosin light chain kinase)
That is activated by cGMP! which is done by NO activating gunylyl cyclase from arginine and nitrates)
Type A dissection vs type B? Mnemonic alert.
Tx for each
Type A invovles Ascending Aorta
Type B is Beyond the Branches
A is emergency surgery
B is medical treatment
GIVE BETA BLOCKERS to decrease slope of increase of BP so each beat pounds it, and this decreases intensity of rise of BP
What drugs are for HTN in preggers? mnemonic alert
Hypertensive Moms Love Nifedipine
Opens potassium channel and hyper polarizes smooth muscle to cause relaxation of smooth muscle.
Patient has no ST elevation but chest pain and a new LBBB. What is it?
NSTEMI. Would still have cardiac markers.
What does a Q wave mean?
Evolving or previous infarct
What can cause dilated cardiomyopathy? Mnemonic
Ber1 Ber1 (wet, thyamine)
Chronic cocaine and booze
Chronic myocardial ischemia
Chagas (everything big with chagas)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinical findings?
Lateral highest impulse
Aortic stenosis b/c hypertrophied septum interferes withouflow MURMUR WORSE WITH VALSALVA (only time that happens)
Histo: disarrayed fibers
If you hear Loffler, what do you think?
eosinophils. In this case, can cause restrictive cardiomyopathy
What are causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy? Mnemonic alert:
LEASH to restrict your heart
Endocardial fibroelastosis (congen)
What is libman sacks endocarditis?
SLE causes LSE
Sterile vegitations on both sides of valve (unlike infective which is normally just one side of the valve)
What are aschoff bodies?
granuloma with giant cell in the heart with Rheumatic heart disease
Macrophage with ovoid wavy rod like nucleus
What causes kussmaul sign?
JVD with inspiration is from CHRONIC CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS (usually lupus)
b/c decreased capacity of RV
Tumor in heart in adults?
In kids? (association)?
Left atrial myxoma
Rhabdomyoma: TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS (the R in Hamartomas mnemonic). Along with astrocytoma and angiomyolipoma.
Mets are lymphoma and melanoma
Vasculitis in asthmatic?
Arthralgia, plapable purpura on butt and legs with GI pain? Followed URI?
IgA complex deposition
IgA nephropathy can come with it (from the URI)
Hep B with vasculitis?
Corticosteroids wither without cyclophosphamide (same tx as wagerers)
Temporalis wasting adnd big pulsating temporal artery?
temporal giant cell arteritis and tx with corticosteroids
Low pulse of arms with young asian women? Night sweats, arthritis and myalgia?
Takayasu arteritis (basically same as gian tecll arteritis) just of Aorta (lots of A's)
Corticosteroids is tx
Benign hemangioma of cutaneous surface of capillaries in infants
DONT CONFUSE WITH PORT WINE STAIN (darker and won't go away)
Raised capillary hemangioma and associated with preggers/trauma
cavernous lymphangioma of neck associated with Turner syndrome
benign painful tumor under fingernails
Describe kaposi sarcoma in older men vs AIDS?
Endothelial malignancy. Prolif of vessels and/or lymphatics
Mistaken for bacillary angiomatosis.
Most common in HIV and HHV8: NEED TO BIOPSY
Blood vessel malignancy in face, scalp, neck and breast
Associated with prior radiation therapy