Embalming: Glossary Flashcards Preview

MOR 260: National Board Exam Review > Embalming: Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embalming: Glossary Deck (570):
1

Nine region plan: by means of four imaginary planes, two of which are horizontal (indicated by lines drawn across the right and left 10" ribs and across the right and left anterior superior iliac spines) and two sagittal (indicated by lines drawn from mid point of inguinal ligament to nipples of chest, right and left sides)

Abdominal anatomical regions

2

Abdominal anatomical regions: upper row

* Right hypochondriac
* Epigastric
* Left hypochondriac

3

Abdominal anatomical regions: middle row

* Right lumbar
* Umbilical
* Left lumbar

4

Abdominal anatomical regions: lower row

* Right inguinal (iliac)
* Hypogastric
* Left inguinal (iliac)

5

Four region plan: by means of two imaginary planes, one horizontal and the other mid-sagittal

Abdominal anatomical regions

6

Abdominal anatomical regions: four region plan

* Upper right quadrant
* Upper left quadrant
* Lower right quadrant
* Lower left quadrant

7

Antemortem injuries resulting from friction of the skin against a firm object resulting in the removal of the epidermis

Abrasion

8

To touch or contact, as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyelids

Abut

9

Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and cavity embalming fluids

Accessory chemicals

10

Includes, but is not limited to hardening compounds, preservative powders, sealing agents, mold preventative agents, and pack application agents

Accessory chemicals

11

A specific group of diseases or conditions which are indicative of severe immunosuppression related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

12

Persons dead may exhibit conditions such as wasting syndrome, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

13

These levels are established to ensure adequate protection of employees at exposures below the OSHA limits, but to minimize the compliance burdens for employers whose employees have exposures below the 8-hour permissible exposure limit (PEL)

* Action level
* AL exposure limits

14

For formaldehyde is 0.5 ppm

* Action level

15

That pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body

Actual pressure

16

A wax-like material produced by saponification of body fat in a body buried in alkaline soil

* Adipocere
* Grave wax

17

In the presence of free oxygen

Aerobic

18

To disperse as an aerosol

Aerosolization

19

Minute particles of blood and water become atomized and suspended in air when water under pressure meets the blood drainage or when flushing an undercover flush sink

Aerosolization

20

Intravascular, the increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels

* Agglutination
* Congealing

21

Decrease in body temperature immediately before death

Agonal algor

22

In reference to blood, a change from a fluid into a thickened mass

* Agonal coagulation
* Congealing

23

The loss of moisture from the living body during the agonal state

Agonal dehydration

24

Escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravascular location immediately before death

Agonal edema

25

Increase in body temperature immediately before death

Agonal fever

26

Period immediately before somatic death

Agonal period

27

Post mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature

Algor mortis

28

Method of injection-drainage in which embalming solution is injected and then injection is stopped while drainage is open

Alternate drainage (restricted drainage)

29

An organization of professional personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions who are employed in occupational safety and health programs

American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)

30

The building blocks of proteins

Amino acid

31

The end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis

Amino acid

32

A compound containing an amino group, a carboxyl group attached to an alpha carbon and a radical

Amino acid

33

Amino group

-NH2

34

Carboxyl group

-COOH

35

In the absence of free oxygen

Anaerobic

36

Generalized massive edema in subcutaneous tissue

Anasarca

37

A descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures which are known

Anatomical guide

38

Points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures

Anatomical limits

39

Used to designate the boundaries of arteries

Anatomical limits

40

The body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs pointed away from the body

Anatomical position

41

Localized abnormal dilation or outpocketing of a blood vessel resulting from a congenital defect or a weakness of a vessel wall

Aneurysm

42

An embalming instrument used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels

Aneurysm hook

43

Has an eye in the hook position of the instrument for placing ligatures around the vessels

Aneurysm hook

44

An embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels, which has an eye in the hook portion of the instrument for placing ligatures around the vessels

Aneurysm needle

45

A multipurpose instrument used in the embalming process

Angular spring forceps

46

Deviation from the normal

Anomalies

47

In front of the elbow

Antecubital

48

In the bend of the elbow

Antecubital

49

Before death

Antemortem

50

Toward the front

Anterior

51

A bony protuberance, that can be palpated topographically, found on the ilium, the superior, broad portion of the hipbone

Anterior superior iliac spine

52

The origin of the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle

Anterior superior iliac spine

53

Ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals

Anticoagulant fluid

54

Condition in which the manifestations of life are feebly maintained

Apparent death

55

The concentrated, preservative, embalming chemical that will be diluted with water to form the arterial solution for injection into the arterial system during vascular embalming

* Arterial fluid
* Vascular fluid

56

The purpose is for inactivating saprophytic bacteria and rendering the body tissues less susceptible to decomposition

* Arterial fluid
* Vascular fluid

57

The mixture of arterial (vascular) fluid and water which is used for the arterial injection and may include supplemental fluids

Arterial solution

58

A tube used to inject embalming fluid into the blood vascular system

Arterial tube

59

Disease of the arteries resulting in thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls

Arteriosclerosis

60

Place of union between two or more bones

Articulation

61

Accumulation of serous fluids in the peritoneal cavity

Ascites

62

Freedom from infection and from any form of life

Asepsis

63

Sterility

Asepsis

64

Insufficient intake of oxygen resulting from any of numerous causes

Asphyxia

65

Withdrawal of gas, fluids, and semi-solids from body cavities and hollow viscera by means of suction with an aspirator and a trocar

Aspiration

66

Fatty degeneration or thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in ahterosclerosis

Atheroma

67

Apparatus used for sterilization by steam pressure, usually at 250 degrees Fahrenheit / 121 degrees Celsius for a specific time

Autoclave

68

Self-destruction of cells

Autolysis

69

Decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance

Autolysis

70

The body's own digestive enzymes that are capable of destroying body cells

Autolytic enzyme

71

Body's own digestive enzymes that are capable of destroying body cells

Autolytic decomposition

72

A postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition

* Autopsy
* Postmortem examination

73

Agent that destroys bacteria

Bactericidal agent

74

Agent that has the ability to inhibit or retard bacterial growth

Bacteriostatic agent

75

No destruction of viability of the microorganism is implied

Bacteriostatic agent

76

Resins combined with oil

Balsamic substance

77

A fragrant, resinous, oily exudate from various trees and plants

Balsamic substance

78

Base of the axillary space

Armpit

79

Biological agent or condition that constitutes a hazard to humans

Biohazard

80

Bloodborne pathogens, blood or body fluids exposure, any potentially infective, contaminated waste associated with the preparation of human remains that constitutes a hazard to humans in the workplace

* Biohazardous waste
* Infectious waste

81

Irreversible somatic death

Biological death

82

A carcinogen potentially produced when formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite come into contact with each other

Bischloromethyl ether (BCME)

83

Normally occurs only in a controlled laboratory setting and requires a catalyst

Bischloromethyl ether (BCME)

84

A chemical that lightens a skin discoloration

Bleaching agent

85

Cell-containing fluid that circulates through the blood vascular system and is compposed of approximately 22% solids and 78% water

Blood

86

Discolorations resulting from change in blood composition, content, or location, either intravascularly or extravascularly

Blood discoloration

87

The pressure exerted by the blood in the living body on the arterial wall measured in millimeters of mercury

Blood pressure

88

Circulatory network composed of the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins

Blood vascular system

89

OSHA Regulation (29CFR 1910-1030) regulating the employee's exposure to blood and other body fluids

Bloodborne Pathogen Rule

90

Blood, human blood, human blood components, and products made from human blood

Bloodborne pathogens (OSHA definition)

91

Pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans

Bloodborne pathogens

92

Include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Bloodborne pathogens

93

The separation and pushing aside of the superficial fascia leading to blood vessels and then the deep fascia surrounding blood vessels, utilizing manual techniques or round-ended instruments which separate rather than cut the protective tissues

Blunt dissection

94

Acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin, which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle

* Boil
* Furuncle

95

A temporary suture consisting of individually cut and tied stitched employed to sustain the proper position of tissues

* Bridge suture
* Interrupted suture

96

Vestibule of the oral cavity

Buccal cavity

97

The space between the lips, gums, and teeth

Buccal cavity

98

Self-contained, soft rubber manual pump designed to create pressure to deliver fluid as it passes through one-way valves located within the bulb

Bulb syringe

99

Used only to deliver fluids

Bulb syringe

100

Cannot be used for aspiration

Bulb syringe

101

Substances that in solution are capable of neutralizing, within limits, both acids and bases and thereby maintaining the original, or constant, pH, of the solution

Buffers

102

Dead human body used for medical purposes

Cadaver

103

Includes transplantation, anatomical dissection and study

Cadaver

104

A prolongation of the last violent contraction of the muscle into the rigidity of death

Cadaveric spasm

105

The dome-like superior portion of the cranium

Calvarium

106

That portion removed during cranial autopsy

Calvarium

107

A device used as a means of fastening the calvarium after a cranial autopsy

Calvarium clamp

108

Formation of new channels in a tissue

Canalization

109

Minute blood vessels, the walls of which comprise a single layer of endothelial cells

Capillaries

110

Connect the arterioles with the venules and are where pressure filtration occurs

Capillaries

111

Smallest arteries

Arterioles

112

Smallest veins

Venules

113

Ability of substances to diffuse through capillary walls into the tissue spaces

Capillary permeability

114

A compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen that is an aldehyde or ketone derivative of polyhydroxyl alcohol

Carbohydrate

115

Examples: sugars, starches, and glycogen

Carbohydrate

116

Circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that ends in suppuration and is accompanied by systemic symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis

Carbuncle

117

A cancer-causing chemical or material

* Carcinogen
* Carcinogenicity

118

The formation of cavities in an organ or tissue

Cavitation

119

Frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis

Cavitation

120

Direct treatment, other than vascular (arterial) injection, of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera

Cavity embalming

121

Usually accomplished by aspiration and injection of chemicals using a trocar

Cavity embalming

122

Embalming chemicals which are injected into the cavities of the body following the aspiration in cavity embalming

Cavity fluid

123

Can be used as the chemical in hypodermic and surface embalming

Cavity fluid

124

Death of the individual cells of the body

Cellular death

125

Ascending aorta and / or arch of the aorta

Center of fluid distribution

126

Right atrium of the heart

Center of venous drainage

127

Embalming machine that uses an electrical pump to create pressure, either pulsating or non-pulsating

Centrifugal force machine

128

A major agency of the Department of Health and Human Services, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, concerned with all phases of control of communicable, vector-borne, and occupational diseases

* Center for Disease Control and Prevention (DCDP)
* CDC

129

Substances that bind metallic ions such as EDTA (Ethylenediamine-tetracetic acid)

Chelate

130

Used as an anticoagulant in embalming solutions

Chelate

131

Change in the body's chemical composition that occurs after death

Chemical postmortem change

132

Example: Release of heme leading to postmortem staining

Chemical postmortem change

133

The application of chemical reagents in the treatment of disease in man, using an elevated preservation demand

* Chemotherapy
* Chemotherapeutic agents

134

A phase of somatic death lasting from five to six minutes in which life may be restored

Clinical death

135

Drainage procedure that limits the exposure of the embalmer to the drainage

Closed system drainage

136

Tubing is attached to a drain tube allowing drainage to flow directly from a vein into a sanitary disposal system

Closed system drainage

137

Tubing may also be attached to a trocar and aspirator allowing drainage to be taken from the right atrium of the heart to the sanitary disposal system

Closed system drainage

138

Chemical and physical agents that bring about coagulation

Coagulation agents

139

A fluid used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of vascular (arterial) solutions

Co-injection fluid

140

Mode of somatic death

Coma

141

Death beginning at the brain

Coma

142

Disease that may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between individuals by an infectious agent

Communicable disease

143

Disinfection practices carried out during the embalming process

Concurrent disinfection

144

Method of drainage in which drainage occurs continuously during vascular (arterial) injection

Concurrent drainage

145

Rounded articular process on a bone

Condyle

146

The process of converting soluble protein to insoluble protein by heating or by contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde

Congealing

147

Mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye

Conjunctiva

148

Disease that may be transmitted between individuals, with reference to the organism that causes a disease

Contagious disease

149

The presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface

Contaminated

150

Laundry that has been soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials or may contain sharps

Contaminated laundry

151

Any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin

Contaminated sharps

152

Examples: Needles, scalpels, broken glass, and exposed ends of wires

Contaminated sharps

153

Transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior

Cornea

154

That portion of the cornea recovered for transplantation in situ

Corneal sclera button

155

An official of a local community who holds inquests concerning sudden, violent, and unexplained deaths

Coroner

156

Having an abnormal amount of fat on the body

* Corpulance
* Obesity

157

Embalming fluid that contains dyes and coloring agents intended to restore a more natural skin tone through the embalming process

Cosmetic fluid

158

Dye that helps to cover internal discolorations such as jaundice

Counter staining compound

159

Plastic garment designed to cover the body from the chest down to the upper right

Coverall

160

Method used to embalm the contents of the cranial cavity through aspiration and injection of the cranial chamber by passage of a trocar through the cribriform plate

Cranial embalming

161

Those elements remaining after cremation of a dead human body

Cremated remains

162

Crackling sensation produced when gases trapped in tissues are palpated, as in subcutaneous emphysema

Crepitation

163

Disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology assumed to be caused by a prion

Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD)

164

Thin, medial portion of the ethmoid bone of the skull

Cribriform plate

165

Irreversible cessation of all vital functions (non-legal definition)

Death

166

Noise made by a moribund person caused by air passing through a residue of mucous in the trachea and posterior oral cavity

Death rattle

167

The semi-convulsive twitches which often occur before death

Death struggle

168

Decomposition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria

Decay

169

Separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and / or autolytic enzymes

Decomposition

170

Loss of moisture from the body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem the removal of water from a substance

Dehydration

171

A protein whose structure has been changed by physical or chemical agents

Denatured protein

172

Rendered thoroughly dry

Desiccation

173

Exhausted of moisture

Desiccation

174

Areas of embalmed tissue where excessive dehydration has occurred

Desiccation marks

175

Sloughing off of the epidermis, wherein there is a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis

* Desquamation
* Skin slip

176

Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rating of diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane

Dialysis

177

The difference between potential and actual pressure

Differential pressure

178

Movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached

Diffusion

179

Passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location

Diffusion (arterial solution)

180

Movement of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids

Diffusion (arterial solution)

181

Finger and toes

Digits

182

Number one digit for each hand

Thumb

183

Number one digit for each foot

Large toe

184

Any abnormal color in or upon the human body

Discoloration

185

Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a body part, organ, or system

Disease

186

An agent, usually chemical, applied to inanimate objects / surfaces to destroy disease-causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores

Disinfecant

187

The destruction and / or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body

Disinfection

188

The movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries

Distribution (fluid)

189

Embalming instrument, inserted into a vein, used to aid the drainage of venous blood from the body

Drain tubes

190

Discharge or withdrawal of blood, blood clots, interstitial and lymphatic fluid, and embalming solution from the body during vascular embalming, usually through a vein

Drainage

191

OSHA-required safety device for a release of a copious amount of water in a short time

Drench shower

192

A condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic

Dry gangrene

193

Occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed

Dry gangrene

194

Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution

* Dye
* Coloring agent

195

Classified as to their capacity to permanently impart color to the tissue of the body into which they are injected

* Dye
* Coloring agent

196

Discoloration of the skin caused by the escape of blood within the tissues

* Ecchymosis
* Bruise

197

Generally accompanied by swelling

* Ecchymosis
* Bruise

198

Record of the electrical activity of the heart

* Electrocardiogram (ECG / EKG)

199

Abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavities

Edema

200

A record of the electrical activity of the brain

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

201

A device that uses a motor to create suction for the purpose of aspiration

Electric aspirator

202

An electrically heated blade that may be used to dry moist tissue, reduce swollen tissue, and restore contour

Electric spatula

203

Process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to temporarily inhibit organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance

Embalming

204

Number of types of embalming

Four

205

Report filled out for each body prepared and for each body received from another funeral home

* Embalming report
* Case report

206

That consideration given to the dead body prior to, during, and after the embalming procedure is completed

* Embalming analysis
* Case analysis

207

Documentation is recommended

* Embalming analysis
* Case analysis

208

Mechanical systems and devices engineered into the architecture of a building

Engineering controls

209

Examples: Exhaust systems, sanitary plumbing

Engineering controls

210

The surroundings, conditions, or influences that affect an organism or the cells within an organism

Environment

211

A governmental agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

212

Organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition

Enzyme

213

A protein that acts as a biological catalyst

Enzyme

214

To remove as by cutting out

Excision

215

The area from which tissue has been removed

Excision

216

Any procedure used to prove a sign of death usually performed by medical personnel

Expert tests of death

217

A specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee's duties

Exposure incident

218

Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties

Exposure, occupational

219

Outside the blood vascular system

Extravascular

220

Discoloration of the body outside the blood vascular system

Extravascular blood discoloration

221

Examples: Ecchymosis, petechial, hematoma, and postmortem stain

Extravascular blood discoloration

222

Excess loss of blood

Exsanguination

223

From outside the body

Extrinsic

224

Removal of the eye for tissue transplantation, research, or education

Eye enucleation

225

Extravasation of blood as a result of eye enucleation

Eye enucleation discoloration

226

OSHA-required emergency safety device providing a steady stream of water for flushing the eye

Eye wash station

227

A thin, dome-like shell made of hardened cloth, metal, or plastic place beneath eyelids to restore natural curvature and to maintain the position of posed eyelids

Eyecap

228

A common name for a triglyceride ester that is a semisolid or solid at room temperature and contains a high percentage of saturated fatty acids

Fat

229

A product of decomposition of fats

Fatty acids

230

Characterized by a high fever, causing dehydration of the body

Fatty acids

231

Characterized by a high fever, causing dehydration of the body

Febrile

232

Agency of federal government created in 1914 to promote free and fair competition by prevention of trade restraints, price fixing, false advertising and other unfair methods of competition

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

233

Bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates

Fermentation

234

Lesions of the mucous membrane of the lip or mouth usually caused by Herpes Simplex Type I or II virus or by dehydration of the mucous membrane in a febrile disease

Fever blisters

235

Rigidity of tissue due to chemical reaction

Firming

236

The act of making tissue rigid

Fixation

237

The solidification of a compound

Fixation

238

An agent employed in the preparation of tissues, for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure

Fixative

239

The most important agent being used in a fixative

Formalin

240

Colorless, strong-smelling gas that when used in solution is a powerful preservative and disinfectant

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

241

A potential occupational carcinogen

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

242

Grey discoloration of the body caused by the reaction of formaldehyde from the embalming process with hemoglobin to form methylhemoglobin

Formaldehyde grey

243

OSHA regulation limiting the amount of occupational exposure to formaldehyde gas

Formaldehyde rule

244

Necrosis, death of tissues of part of the body, usually due to deficient or absent blood supply

Gangrene

245

Condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic

Dry gangrene

246

Occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed

Dry gangrene

247

Necrotic tissue that is wet as a result if inadequate venous drainage

Moist (wet) gangrene

248

May be accompanied by the invasion of saprophytic bacteria

Moist (wet) gangrene

249

Necrosis in a wound infected by an anaerobic gas-forming bacillus, the most common etiologic agent being Clostridium perfringens

Gas gangrene

250

Extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body

Gravity filtration

251

Apparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process

Gravity injector

252

Relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid

Gravity injector

253

Pressure required to deliver the fluid in a gravity injector

.43 pounds of pressure per one foot of elevation

254

Instrument used to guide vein tubes into vessels

Groove director

255

Historical instrument resembling a large hypodermic syringe attached to a bottle apparatus

Hand pump

256

Used to create either pressure for injection or vacuum for aspiration

Hand pump

257

Water containing large amounts of mineral salts

Hard water

258

Mineral salts must be removed from or sequestered in water (vehicle) to be used in mixing vascular embalming solutions

Hard water

259

Chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb and to disinfect

Hardening compound

260

Often used in cavity treatment of autopsied cases

Hardening compound

261

OSHA regulation that deals with identifying and limiting exposure in occupational hazards

Hazard Communication Standard / Rule

262

An agent or material exposing one to risk

Hazardous material

263

Piece of equipment used to maintain the head in the proper position during the embalming process

Head rest

264

Blood present in vomitus

Hematemesis

265

Vomiting of blood

Hematemesis

266

A swelling or mass of clotted blood confined to an organ or space caused by a ruptured blood vessel

Hematoma

267

The non-protein portion of hemoglobin

Heme

268

The red pigment of hemoglobin

Heme

269

The red respiratory portions of the red blood cells

Hemoglobin

270

Iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to the cells

Hemoglobin

271

Destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin

Hemolysis

272

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

273

It may be caused by a variety of agents, including viral infections, bacterial invasion, and physical or chemical agents

Hepatitis

274

Fever, jaundice, and an enlarged liver usually accompany it

Hepatitis

275

A sever infectious bloodborne virus

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

276

An inflammatory skin disease marked by small vesicles in clusters

Herpes

277

Special vascular (arterial) fluid with an HCHO content of 25 to 36 percent

High preservation demand fluids

278

A 5 percent sodium hypochlorite solution

Household bleach

279

Yields one gallon of a 10% household bleach solution

Twelve ounces of household bleach with 116 ounces of water

280

10% household bleach solution

5,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite

281

A type of retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

282

Body of a deceased person, including cremated remains

Human remains

283

Chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture

Humectant

284

Apparatus that is connected to the water supply

Hydroaspirator

285

When the water is turned on, suction is developed and is used to aspirate the contents of the body's cavities

Hydroaspirator

286

Abnormal accumulation of fluids in a saclike structure in any sacculated cavity in the body, especially the scrotal sac

Hydrocele

287

Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluids in the ventricles of the brain

Hydrocephalus

288

Reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down

Hydrolysis

289

The addition of water accompanied by the action of enzymes results in the breakdown of protein into amino acids

Hydrolysis of proteins

290

Abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac

Hydropericardium

291

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity

Hydrothorax

292

Absorbing moisture readily

Hygroscopic

293

A solution having a greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared

Hypertonic solution

294

Injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or a trocar

Hypodermic embalming

295

Settling of blood and / or other fluids to dependent portions of the body

* Hypostasis
* Agonal hypostasis
* Antemortem hypostasis
* Postmortem hypostasis

296

A solution having a lesser concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared

Hypotonic solution

297

The swelling and softening of tissues and organs as a result of absorbing moisture from adjacent sources

Inhibition

298

A clean cut made with a sharp instrument

Incision

299

In embalming, a cut made with a scalpel to raise arteries and veins

Incision

300

Strength of an embalming fluid, indicated by the number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 mL of water

Index

301

Usually refers to a percentage

Index

302

Percentage of formaldehyde gas in an embalming fluid with an index of 25

25%

303

A child less than one year of age

Infant

304

Disease caused by the growth of a pathogenic microorganism in the body

Infectious disease

305

Beneath

Inferior

306

Lower

Inferior

307

Used medically in reference to the undersurface of an organ or indicating a structure below another structure

Inferior

308

Toward the feet

Inferior

309

Anatomical structures forming the base of the femoral triangle

Inguinal ligament

310

Extends from the anterior superior iliac spine to the public tubercle

Inguinal ligament

311

The act or instance of forcing a fluid into the vascular system or directly into tissues

Injection

312

The amount of pressure produced by an injection device to overcome initial resistance within (intravascular) or on (extravascular) the vascular system (arterial or venous)

Injection pressure

313

The immediate stiffening of the muscles of a dead human body

Instantaneous rigor mortis

314

Between the cells of a structure

Intercellular

315

Fluid inside cells of the body

Intercellular fluid

316

Constitutes about one-half of the body weight

Intercellular fluid

317

Space between the ribs

Intercostal space

318

Method of drainage in which the drainage is stopped at intervals while the injection continues

* Intermittent drainage
* Restricted drainage

319

Fluid in the supporting connective tissues surrounding body cells

Interstitial fluid

320

About one-fifth of the body weight

Interstitial fluid

321

Within the blood vascular system

Intravascular

322

Discoloration of the body within the blood vascular system

Intravascular blood discoloration

323

Examples: Hypostasis, carbon monoxide, and capillary congestion

Intravascular blood discoloration

324

Fluid contained within vascular channels

Intravascular fluid

325

About one-twentieth of the body weight

Intravascular fluid

326

Pressure developed as the flow of embalming solution is established and the elastic arterial walls expand and then contract, resulting in filling of the capillary beds and development of pressure filtration

Intravascular pressure

327

Condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed

* Ischemic necrosis
* Dry gangrene

328

From within the body

Intrinsic

329

A solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute as the solution to which it is compared

Isotonic solution

330

Condition characterized by excessive concentration of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient

Jaundice

331

A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice

Jaundice fluid

332

Usually low formaldehyde content

Jaundice fluid

333

Wound characterized by irregular tearing of tissue

Laceration

334

Substance used to kill insect larvae

Larvicide

335

Away from the midline

Lateral

336

A severe, often fatal, bacterial disease characterized by pneumonia, dry cough and sometimes by gastrointestinal symptoms

Legionaires Disease

337

Specific pathologic structural and functional changes or both brought about by disease or injury

Lesion

338

To tie off an artery and vein upon completion of embalming

Ligate

339

A line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper-lying structure

Linear guide

340

Decomposition of fats

Lipolysis

341

Postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood

* Liver mortis
* Cadaveric lividity

342

A cavity or opening of a vein, artery, or intestine

Lumen

343

A specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues

Lysin

344

Organelle that exists within a cell, but separate from the cell

Lysosome

345

Containing hydrolytic enzymes that break down protein and certain carbohydrates

Lysosome

346

An insect larva

Maggot

347

Fly larva

Maggot

348

A stitch used to hold the mouth closed

Mandibular suture

349

Placed behind the lips, one part is passed through around the inferior jaw at the median plane, while the other part extends through the nasal septum or the superior frenulum

Mandibular suture

350

Manipulation of tissue in the course of preparation of the body

Massage

351

The application of treatments or procedures that utilize machines or instruments

Mechanical aids

352

Adjustments of pressure, rate of flow or use of pulsation with the embalming machine

Mechanical aids

353

Utilization of properly sized arterial tubes and drainage instruments

Mechanical aids

354

Opening and closing of drainage instruments

Mechanical aids

355

Toward the midline

Medial

356

An official elected or appointed to investigate suspicious or unnatural deaths

Medical examiner

357

Inflammation of the meninges

Meningitis

358

A minute, one-celled form of life not distinguishable as to vegetable or animal nature

* Microbe
* Microorganism

359

That amount of radioactive material in which 37 million atoms disintegrate each second

Millicurie (mCi)

360

Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands predicated upon the type of embalming, the environment, and the embalming fluid to be used

Modifying agents

361

Agents which will prohibit the growth of mold

* Mold preventative
* Mold-preventative agents

362

In a dying state

Moribund

363

In the agonal period

Moribund

364

A paste to fix or fill

Mortuary putty

365

A device used in the mouth in shaping the contour of the lips

Mouth former

366

This must accompany a hazardous product

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

367

A requirement of the Department of Labor and OSHA under the Hazard Communication Standard

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

368

Vascular injection from two or more sites

* Multi-point injection
* Multi-site

369

Method of mouth closure in which a suture is passed through the septum of the nose and through the mentalis muscle of the chin

Musculature suture

370

Space between the roof of the mouth and the floor of the cranial cavity

Nasal cavity

371

Embalming instrument used to aspirate the throat by means of the nostrils

Nasal tube aspirator

372

Tests and certifies respiratory protective devices and air sampling detector tubes, recommends occupational exposure limits for various substances, and assists OSHA inoccupational safety and health investigations and research

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

373

Antemortem, physiological death of the cells of the body followed by their replacement

Necrobiosis

374

Pathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organism

Necrosis

375

A mechanical device used to impel specially designed metal pins into bone

Needle injector

376

Inflammation of the kidneys

Nephritis

377

Metabolic by-products that contain nitrogen, such as urea and uric acid

Nitrogenous waste

378

These compounds have a high affinity for formaldehyde and tend to neutralize embalming chemicals

Nitrogenous waste

379

A type of arterial fluid that contains inactive dyes that will not impart a color change upon the body tissues of the deceased

Non-cosmetic fluid

380

Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potential infectious materials that may result from the performance of worker's duties

Occupational exposure

381

A Governmental Agency with the responsibility for regulation and enforcement of safety and health matters for most United States employees

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

382

An individual State agency may supercede the U.S. Department of Labor regulations

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

383

Injection and drainage from one location

One point injection

384

Any and all techniques to treat a problem area, excision, incision, and channeling

Operative (aids) corrections

385

An optical instrument with an accompanying light that makes it possible to examine the retina and to explore for blood circulation

Ophthalmoscope

386

The most favorable condition for functioning

Optimum

387

The mouth and the vestibule

Oral cavity

388

The opening to the throat

Vestibule

389

Passage of pure solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane which selectively prevents the passage of solute molecules but it is permeable to the solvent

Osmosis

390

Embalming instrument used in filling the external orifices of the body

Packing forceps

391

To examine by touch

Palpate

392

Incision on the surface of the skin to raise the common carotid arteries

Parallel incision

393

It is made along the posterior border of the inferior one-third of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

Parallel incision

394

Piercing mucous membranes or the skin barrier through such events as needlesticks, human bites, cuts and abrasions

Paranteral

395

A method of expressing low concentrations

Parts per million (ppm)

396

Equivalent to 1 milligram per liter

1 ppm

397

In contaminated air, the parts of vapor or gas (formaldehyde) per million parts of air by volume

Parts per million (ppm)

398

In solution, the parts of chemical per million parts of solution

Parts per million (ppm)

399

Antemortem discoloration that occurs during the course of certain diseases

Pathological discoloration

400

Examples: gangrene, jaundice

Pathological discoloration

401

Substance able to destroy lice

Pediculicide

402

Effected through unbroken skin

Percutaneous

403

Chemicals found in embalming arterial formulations having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one

* Perfuming agents
* Masking agents

404

To force a fluid through (an organ or tissue), especially by way of the blood vessels

Perfusion

405

Injection during vascular (arterial) embalming

Perfusion

406

Inflammation of the peritoneum, the membranous coat lining the abdominal cavity and investing the viscera

Peritonitis

407

The maximum legal established by OSHA for regulated substances

Permissible exposure limit (PEL)

408

Based on employee exposure that is time-weighted over an 8-hour work shift

Permissible exposure limit (PEL)

409

When these limits are exceeded, employers must take proper steps to reduce employee exposure

Permissible exposure limit (PEL)

410

PEL for formaldehyde

.75 ppm

411

Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against hazard

Personal protection (protective) equipment (PPE)

412

Antemortem, pinpoint, extravascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of the skin

Petechia

413

Drugs or medicines that change the biochemical constituents of the blood

Pharmaceutical agents

414

Condition in which interstitial spaces contain such excessive amounts of fluid that the skin remains depressed after palpation

Pitting edema

415

Preparation room equipment for properly positioning bodies prior to, during, and after vascular embalming

Positioning devices

416

Toward the back

Posterior

417

Period that begins after somatic death

Postmortem

418

The rise in temperature after death due to continued cellular metabolism

Postmortem caloricity

419

A change in the form or state of matter without any change in chemical composition

Postmortem physical changes

420

Extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemolysis of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel walls and into the body tissues

Postmortem stain

421

Power / potential of hydrogen

Potential of hydrogen (pH)

422

A number signifying the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution

Potential of hydrogen (pH)

423

The measure of hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

Potential of hydrogen (pH)

424

The scale ranges from 0 to 14

Potential of hydrogen (pH)

425

Completely acid

0

426

Completely basic

14

427

Neutral

7

428

Blood pH

7.35-7.45

429

The pressure indicated by the injector gauge needle when the injector motor is running and the arterial tubing is clamped off

Potential pressure

430

Turner Portiboy injection machine

Potential pressure

431

A substance bringing about precipitation

Precipitant

432

Fluids designed to clear the vascular system of blood and enable the arterial solution to distribute with greater facility

Preinjection fluid

433

That area or facility where embalming, dressing, cosmetizing, or other body preparation are effected

Preparation room

434

Chemicals which inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which such bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes and lysins of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition

Preservative

435

Amount of preservative (formaldehyde) required to effectively preserve remains

* Preservative demand
* Formaldehyde demand

436

Amount depends on the condition of the tissues as determined in the embalming analysis

* Preservative demand
* Formaldehyde demand

437

Chemical in powder form

Preservative powder

438

Typically used for surface embalming of the remains

Preservative powder

439

Action of a force against an opposing force

Pressure

440

A force applied or acting against resistance

Pressure

441

The force per unit area exerted on a material

Pressure

442

Positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming fluid through the capillary wall to diffuse with the interstitial fluids

Pressure filtration

443

Causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular to an extravascular position

Pressure filtration

444

The dilution attained as the embalming solution is mixed in the embalming machine

Primary dilution

445

Disinfection carried out prior to the embalming process

Primary disinfection

446

The recovery of organs or tissues from a cadaver for transplantation or study

Procurement

447

Projection of the jaw or jaws that may cause problems with mouth closure and alignment of the teeth

Prognathism

448

Organic compound found in plants and animals

Protein

449

Can be broken down into amino acids

Protein

450

Decomposition of proteins

Proteolysis

451

Any one of a group of nitrogenous organic compounds formed by the action of putrefactive bacteria on proteins

Ptomaine

452

Examples: Indole, skatole, cadaverine, and putrescine

Ptomaine

453

The fibrocartilage that joins the two pubic bones in the median plane

Pubic symphysis

454

Postmortem evacuation of any substance from an external orifice of the body as a result of pressure

Purge

455

Liquid product of inflammation containing various proteins and leukocytes

Pus

456

Characteristic pus-filled structure of a disease

Pustular lesion

457

Examples: smallpox, syphilis, acne

Pustular lesion

458

Decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria

Putrefaction

459

The supervisor in an institution licensed to use radionuclides who has the responsibility to establish procedures and make recommendations in the use of all radioactive matter

Radiation protection officer

460

A chemical element that is similar in chemical properties to another element, but differs in atomic weight and electric charge and emits radiation

Radionuclide

461

An atom that disintegrates by emission of electromagnetic radiation

Radionuclide

462

Speed at which fluid is injected

Rate of flow

463

Measured in ounces per minute

Rate of flow

464

A darkened, air-dried area on the skin resulting from removal of the epidermis while shaving

* Razor burn
* Razor abrasion

465

Repeated aspiration of a cavity

Re-aspiration

466

Substance that easily loses electrons and thereby causes other substances to be reduced

Reducing agent

467

Strong reducing agent

Formaldehyde

468

An amorphous, nonvolatile solid or soft side substance, a natural exudation from plants

Resinous substance

469

Any of a class of solid or soft organic compounds of natural or synthetic origin

Resinous substance

470

Intermittent or alternate injection and drainage

Restricted drainage

471

Treatments of the deceased in the attempt to recreate natural form and color

Restoration

472

Supplemental fluids may be separate fluids or ones enhancing arterial fluids by the addition of special chemicals such as humectants, whose purpose is to retain body moisture and retard dehydration

* Restorative fluid
* Humectant

473

Method of injection wherein both common carotid arteries are raised

Restricted cervical injection

474

The right side of the heart seen as the center of drainage

Right atrium

475

Used as a site of drainage via instruments from the right internal jugular vein and direct via the trocar or through the thoracic wall

Right atrium

476

Postmortem stiffening of the body muscles by natural body processes

Rigor mortis

477

Decomposition of sugars

Saccharolysis

478

A process to promote and establish conditions which minimize or eliminate biohazards

Sanitation

479

The reaction between a fat and a strong base to produce glycerol and the salt of a fatty acid

Saponification

480

Salt of a fatty acid

Soap

481

Process of soap formation

Saponification

482

As related to decomposition, the conversion of fatty tissues of the body into a soapy waxy substance called adipocere or grave wax

Saponification

483

Bacteria that derive their nutrition from dead organic matter

Saprophytic bacteria

484

A two piece-embalming instrument consisting of a handle and a blade used to make incisions and excisions

Scalpel

485

Material used to provide a barrier or seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood

* Sealing agents
* Sealers

486

Weakening of the embalming fluid by the fluids in the body, both vascular and interstitial

Secondary dilution

487

Pathologic state, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the blood or other tissues

Sepsis

488

Condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood

Septicemia

489

A chemical agent that can "fence off" or "tie up" metal ions so they cannot react with other chemicals

Sequestering agent

490

Notched on the edge like a saw, as seen with forceps

Serrated

491

Hypodermic needles, suture needles, injector needles, scalpel blades, razor blades, pins, and other items sharp enough to cause percutaneous injury, penetration of unbroken skin

Sharps

492

May include other items normally not disposed of following use, such as scissors, teeth, finger nails, and ribs

Sharps

493

OSHA-required receptacle for proper disposal of sharps

Sharps container

494

Legal limits established by OSHA to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without damage or injury

Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)

495

Exposure should not be for more than 15 minutes and not repeated more than four times per workday

Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)

496

Manifestation of death in the body

Sign of death

497

An unstable salt usually produced in an aqueous solution and used as a bleaching and disinfecting agent

Sodium hypochlorite

498

A substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution

Solute

499

The component of a solution present in a lesser amount

Solute

500

A homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dissolved in a sufficient quantity of solvent

Solution

501

A substance that does the dissolving in a solution

Solvent

502

The component of a solution present in a greater amount

Solvent

503

Death of the organism as a whole

Somatic death

504

Injection from one site and drainage from a separate site

Split injection

505

Oven or appliance for sterilizing

Sterilizers

506

An autoclave that disinfects by steam under pressure at temperatures above 100 degrees Celsius

Sterilizers

507

A process of completely removing or destroying all life forms and / or their products on or in a substance

Sterilization

508

Delicate instrument used to detect almost inaudible sounds produced in the body

Stethoscope

509

Dead at birth

Stillborn

510

A product of conception either expelled or extracted dead

Stillborn

511

Situated or occurring beneath the skin

Subcutaneous

512

Distension of the tissues beneath the skin by gas or air

Subcutaneous emphysema

513

An antemortem condition brought about by a surgical procedure or trauma

Subcutaneous emphysema

514

Pertaining to or situated near the surface

Superficial

515

More elevated in place or position

Superior

516

Higher

Superior

517

Upper

Superior

518

Anatomically towards the head

Superior

519

Fluid injected for purposes other than preservation and disinfection

Supplemental fluid

520

General categories of supplemental fluid

* Preinjection
* Coinjection
* Humectants / restorative fluids

521

Cloth, wet or dry, folded and applied firmly to a body part

Surface compress

522

The direct contact of body tissues with embalming chemicals

Surface embalming

523

A discoloration due to the deposit of matter on the skin surface

Surface discoloration

524

These discolorations may occur antemortem, during, or after embalming of the body

Surface discoloration

525

Causes include adhesive tape, ink, iodine, paint, tobacco stains

Surface discoloration

526

An absorbent material compress saturated with an embalming chemical and placed in direct contact with the tissue

Surface pack

527

Chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so it can flow through smaller apertures

* Surfactant
* Wetting agent
* Surface tension reducer
* Penetrating agent
* Surface-active agent

528

Minute petechial hemorrhages caused by the rupture of minute vessels as blood settles into the dependent areas of organs and tissues

Tardieu spots

529

It is accompanied by livor mortis

Tardieu spots

530

A postmortem, extravascular blood discoloration

Tardieu spots

531

Most common in asphyxia or slow deaths

Tardieu spots

532

The science of treating the body chemically so as to temporarily inhibit decomposition

Temporary preservation

533

Institution of disinfection and decontamination measures after the preparation of the remains

Terminal disinfection

534

Any procedure used to prove a sign of death

Test of death

535

Study of death

Thanatology

536

Destruction of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues

Third degree burns

537

Seared, charred, or roasted tissue

Third degree burns

538

A general term

Tissue coagulation

539

The solidification of a sol into a gelatinous mass

Tissue coagulation

540

A specific form of coagulation

Agglutination

541

Postmortem accumulation of gas in tissues or cavities brought about by an anaerobic gas-forming bacillus, Clostridium perfringens

Tissue gas

542

The yellowing / browning of the fingernails and fingers from excessive use of cigarettes

Tobacco tars

543

A surface discoloration

Tobacco tars

544

Disinfection of the surface of the body or an object

Topical disinfection

545

An agonal or postmortem redistribution of host microflora on a hostwide basis

Translocation

546

The grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site, or of an organ or tissue from one person to another

Transplantation

547

Lying at right angles to the long axis of the body

Transverse

548

A physical injury or wound caused by external force or violence

Trauma

549

Sharply pointed surgical instrument used in cavity embalming to aspirate the cavities and inject cavity fluid

Trocar

550

May be used for supplemental hypodermic embalming

Trocar

551

A plastic threaded screw-like device for sealing punctures and small round trocar openings

Trocar button

552

A line drawn or visualized on the surface of the body or a prominent anatomic structure used to locate internal structures during cavity embalming, from a point of reference two inches to the left of and two inches superior to the umbilicus

Trocar guide

553

An evaluation of exposures that are time-weighted over an established period

Time-weighted average (TWA)

554

Allows the exposure levels to be averaged generally over an 8-hour time period

Time-weighted average (TWA)

555

Plastic garment designed to cover the entire body from the chest down to and including the feet

Unionall

556

An approach to infection control in which all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious

Universal precautions

557

Apparatus that prevents the back-siphoning of contaminated liquids into potable water supply lines or plumbing cross-connections within the preparation room

Vacuum breaker

558

The use of the blood vascular system of the body for temporary preservation, disinfection, and restoration

Vascular (arterial) embalming

559

Accomplished through injection of embalming solutions into the arteries and drainage from the veins

Vascular (arterial) embalming

560

Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids

Vehicle

561

Internal organs enclosed within a cavity

Viscera

562

The resistance that a liquid exhibits to the flow of one layer over another arising from the molecular attraction between the molecules of a liquid

Viscosity

563

The thickness of a liquid

Viscosity

564

An agent to remove chemical constituents from municipal water supplies that could interfere with drainage and preservation

Water conditioner

565

Injection of an arterial solution composed of a preservative embalming fluid which is diluted with supplemental chemicals such as humectants, water conditioners and co-injections

Waterless embalming

566

Quality of water containing certain substances, especially soluble salts of calcium and magnesium

Water hardness

567

A condition resulting from the use of an embalming solution containing an insufficient amount of preservative to meet the preservation demand of the tissues

Waterlog

568

The interstitial spaces are overly filled, engorged with water

Waterlog

569

Controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed

Work practice controls

570

Example: prohibiting recapping of needles and not allowing blood splatter or aerosolization of blood while draining during the embalming process

Work practice controls

Decks in MOR 260: National Board Exam Review Class (42):