Funeral Service Sciences: Glossary Flashcards Preview

MOR 260: National Board Exam Review > Funeral Service Sciences: Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Funeral Service Sciences: Glossary Deck (588):
1

Localized accumulation of pus

Abscess

2

This term is applied to a lesser structure that resembles a similar organ in structure and function, such as the accessory pancreatic duct

* Accessory
* Auxillary
* Assisting

3

A substance that yields hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution

Acids

4

Presents itself after birth

Acquired

5

Hyperfunction of pituitary gland after ossification has been completed

Acromegaly

6

A disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration

Acute

7

A wax-like material produced by saponification of body fat in a body buried in alkaline soil

* Adipocere
* Gravewax

8

A protein found in blood plasma

Albumin

9

An organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups

Alcohols

10

Hydroxyl group

(-OH)

11

An organic compound containing one or more -CHO groups

Aldehyde

12

The digestive system tube from the mouth to the anus, including the mouth or buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines

Alimentary canal

13

Having a hypersensitivity to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction

Allergies

14

An acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction

* Allergy
* Hypersensitivity

15

Substance that does not normally cause a reaction

Allergen

16

Congenital absence of one or more limbs

Amelia

17

An organic compound containing nitrogen

Amines

18

Any compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals

Amines

19

General formula for primary amines

R-NH2

20

The building blocks of proteins

Amino acid

21

A compound containing an amino group, a carboxyl group attached to an alpha carbon and a radical

Amino acid

22

Amino group

-NH2

23

Carboxyl group

-COOH

24

Any compound that can act as both an acid and a base in solution

Amphoteric

25

Example: amino acid

Amphoteric

26

Generalized massive edema in subcutaneous tissue

Anasarca

27

The branch of science dealing with the study of the structure of the body

Anatomy

28

A decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin or both

Anemia

29

A localized dilation of a blood vessel

Aneurysm

30

The study of vessels

Angiology

31

Mutual opposition or contrary action

Antagonism

32

The inhibition of one microorganism by another

Antagonism

33

Glycoprotein substance developed by the body in response to, and interacting specifically with, an antigen

* Antibody
* Immunoglobulin

34

Chemicals used to keep the blood in the liquid state

Anticoagulants

35

Chemical agents that retard the tendency of the blood to become more viscous by natural post mortem processes and / or prevent other adverse reactions between the blood and the other embalming chemicals

Anticoagulants

36

A foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that react specifically with it

Antigen

37

The prevention or inhibiting of the growth of causative microorganisms

Antisepsis

38

Before or in front of

* Anterior
* Ventral

39

Refers to the front side of the body

* Anterior
* Ventral

40

Dilution or weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity

Attenuation

41

Failure of a tissue or an organ to develop normally

Aplasia

42

The bony structure that makes up the pectoral girdle, upper extremities, pelvic girdle, and lower extremities

Appendicular skeleton

43

The concentrated, preservative embalming chemical that will be diluted with water (or another appropriate vehicle such as alcohol) to form the arterial solution for injection into the arterial system during vascular embalming

* Arterial fluid
* Vascular fluid

44

Disease of the arteries resulting in thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls

Arteriosclerosis

45

The place of union between two or more bones

Articulation

46

Joint

Articulation

47

Accumulation of free serous fluid in the abdominal cavity

Ascities

48

A form of arteriosclerosis marked by the deposition of lipids in the inner layer or arterial walls

Atherosclerosis

49

The smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element

Atom

50

A wasting, decrease in size of an organ or tissue

Atrophy

51

Self-digestion or self-destruction of the body by autolytic enzymes

Autolysis

52

A postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition

Autopsy

53

Those chemicals specifically designed for use in the preparation of bodies following an autopsy

Autopsy chemicals

54

Self-nourishing bacteria

Autotrophic bacteria

55

Bones in the axial skeleton

80

56

Includes the skull, vertebrae, thorax and hyoid bone

Axial skeleton

57

Rod-shaped bacteria

* Bacillus
* Bacilli

58

The presence of bacteria in the blood

Bacteremia

59

A prokaryotic one-celled microorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as free-living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties

Bacteria

60

A visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism

Bacterial colony

61

An agent that destroys bacteria but not necessarily their spores

Bactericide

62

Science that studies bacteria

Bacteriology

63

A substance that yields hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

Bases

64

Refers to the symmetry of paired organs, or to an organism whose right and left halves are similar images of each other, or in which a median section divides the organism into equivalent right and left halves

Bilateral symmetry

65

Pertaining to bile

Biliary

66

The organs and ducts that participate in the secretion, storage, and delivery of bile to the duodenum

Biliary tract

67

A method of asexual reproduction involving halving of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell followed by the development of each half into a new individual

Binary fission

68

That branch of chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms

Biochemistry

69

An arthropod vector in which the disease causing organism multiplies or develops within the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual

Biological vector

70

A membranous sac or receptacle for a secretion or excretion

Bladder

71

The rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor state by forming bubbles through the action of heat

Boiling

72

The term for the point of equilibrium between the liquid and gas states of matter and typically employed when the temperature is increasing

Boiling

73

Relating to the cheek or mouth

Buccal

74

Substances that in solution are capable of neutralizing, within limits, both acids and bases and thereby maintaining the original, or constant pH, of the solution

Buffers

75

A general state of ill-health, associated with emaciation

Cachexia

76

A sheath or continuous enclosure around an organ or structure

Capsule

77

The membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells

Capsule

78

A loose gel-like structure that in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis

Capsule

79

A compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen that is an aldehyde or ketone derivative of polyhydroxyl alcohol

Carbohydrates

80

Examples: sugars, starches, and glycogen

Carbohydrates

81

Several communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue

Carbuncle

82

The study of the heart

Cardiology

83

A canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone that transmits the internal carotid artery and the internal carotid plexus of sympathetic nerves

Carotid canal

84

Formation of cavities in an organ or tissue

Cavitation

85

Frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis

Cavitation

86

Concentrated embalming chemicals which are injected into the cavities of the body following aspiration in cavity embalming

Cavity fluid

87

Can be used for surface and hypodermic embalming of the problem areas

Cavity fluid

88

Situated at or pertaining to a center point

Central

89

A large group of nonmotile, gram negative intracellular parasites

Chlamydia

90

A change in which a new substance or substances are produced that have entirely different properties from the original substance because the chemical composition has changed

Chemical changes

91

Characteristics that can be observed when a substance is interacting with other substances resulting in a change of chemical composition

Chemical properties

92

The branch of natural science that is concerned with the description and classification of matter, with the changes that matter undergoes, and with the energy associated with each of these changes

Chemistry

93

Funnel shaped openings, especially of the posterior nares

Choanae

94

One of the communication passageways between the nasal fossae and the pharynx

Choanae

95

A disease with a more or less slow onset and long duration

Chronic

96

Congenitally malformed palate with a fissure along the midline

Cleft palate

97

Study of disease by means of body secretions, excretions, and other body fluids performed in the laboratory in the diagnosis of a disease

Clinical pathology

98

The process of converting soluble protein to insoluble protein by heating or by contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde

Coagulation

99

The type of bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in form

* Coccus
* Cocci

100

A solution-like system in which the size of the solute particle is between 1 and 100 nanometers

Colloid

101

Particles of solute pass through filters but not membranes

Colloid

102

The part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum

Colon

103

The rapid oxidation or burning that produces heat and light

Combustion

104

The symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains some benefit such as protection or nourishment and the other is not harmed or benefited

Commensalism

105

A disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another

Communicable

106

An unfavorable condition arising during the course of disease

Complication

107

A substance consisting of two or more atoms combined chemically in definite proportions by mass

Compounds

108

A solution containing a relatively large amount of solute

Concentrated solution

109

The ratio of mass or volume of a solute to the mass or volume of the solution or solvent

Concentrations

110

One of the three nasal conchae

Concha

111

A scroll-like bone

Concha

112

The immediate and temporary disturbance of brain function

Concussion

113

A change of state of matter from a gas to a liquid

Condensation

114

A curved protuberance at the end of a bone forming an articulation

Condyle

115

Existing at the time of birth or shortly thereafter

Congenital

116

Accumulation of an excess of blood or tissue fluid in a body part

Congestion

117

The act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance

Contamination

118

A bruise often accompanied with swelling

Contusion

119

The outer layer of an organ as distinguished from the inner medulla, as in the adrenal gland or kidney

Cortex

120

A congenital condition due to hypothyroidism resulting in mental retardation

Cretinism

121

Condition in which the descent of a testis into the scrotum si arrested at some point in the normal path

* Cryptorchism
* Cryptorchildism

122

The process by which a substance is given definite form

Crystallization

123

A normal or abnormal bending away

Curvature

124

A curve

Curvature

125

Bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membrane due to lack of oxygen

Cyanosis

126

A sac within or on the body surface containing air or fluid

Cyst

127

Of or pertaining to a sac-like structure

Cystic

128

Pertaining to the gallbladder

Cystic

129

Pertaining to the urinary bladder

Cystic

130

The gradual decomposition of dead organic matter by the enzymes of aerobic bacteria

Decay

131

Below the surface

Deep

132

Disease due to lack of dietary or metabolic substance

Deficiency

133

The deterioration of tissues with corresponding functional impairment as a result of disease or injury

Degeneration

134

Loss of moisture from body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem

Dehydration

135

The removal of water from a substance

* Dehydration
* Desiccation

136

Generally used to indicate the natural loss of water

Dehydration

137

Used when a substance is intentionally caused to lose water

Desiccation

138

The disruption and breakdown of the secondary structure of a protein by heat or chemicals

Denaturation

139

Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one

Deodorants

140

Reduction of the toxic properties of a poisonous substance

Detoxification

141

The term denoting the naming of the disease or syndrome

Diagnosis

142

To recognize the nature of a disease

Diagnosis

143

An organic compound containing two aldehyde radicals

Dialdehyde

144

Aldehyde

-CHO

145

The movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached

Diffusion

146

The condition of the heart being enlarged, occurring normally, artificially, or as a result of disease

* Dilatation
* Dilation

147

A solution containing relatively small amount of solute

Dilute solution

148

A double bacillus, two being linked end to end

Diplobacilli

149

A diplobacilli causing conjunctivitis

Morax-Aexenfeld

150

A genus of bacteria that occur in pairs

Diplococcus

151

Farthest from the center, from a medial line, or from the trunk

Distal

152

Opposite of proximal

Distal

153

A chemical or physical agent that kills disease-causing microorganisms

Disinfectant

154

The destruction of disease-causing microorganisms by chemical or physical means

Disinfection

155

Toward the back

* Dorsal
* Posterior

156

Opposite of anterior

* Dorsal
* Posterior

157

Resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs

Drug-fast

158

Condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed

Dry gangrene

159

Example: ischemic necrosis

Dry gangrene

160

A natural or synthetic compound that is used to impart color to another material

Dyes

161

Abnormal development of tissue

Dysplasia

162

Small, non-elevated hemorrhagic patch

Ecchymosis

163

Extravasation of blood into a tissue

Ecchymosis

164

The implantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than the normal one in the uterine cavity

Ectopic pregnancy

165

Abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavities

* Edema
* Dropsy

166

A simple substance which cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means

Elements

167

Excessive wasting away of the body

Emaciation

168

The study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection and preservation of human remains

Embalming chemistry

169

The fluids specifically designed for preservation and disinfection purposes

Embalming fluids

170

Free floating object in the blood stream

Embolism

171

A prominence or projection, especially of a bone

Eminence

172

Pus in the pleural cavity

Empyema

173

Disease that occurs continuously in a particular region, but has low mortality

Endemic

174

A disease that is continuously present in a community

Endemic

175

Pertaining to a ductless gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream

Endocrine

176

Produced or arising from within a cell or organism

Endogenous infection

177

A thick-walled spore within a bacterium

Endospores

178

Bacterial toxin confined within the cell wall of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down, found only in gram negative bacteria

Endotoxin

179

A protein that acts as a biological catalyst

Enzyme

180

Appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area

Epidemic

181

A disease that is currently in higher than normal numbers

Epidemic

182

A chronic neurogenic disease marked by sudden alterations in consciousness and frequently by convulsions

Epilepsy

183

Bleeding from the nose

Epistaxis

184

A compound with the general formula RCOOR'

Ester

185

R in RCOOR'

Hydrocarbon group or a hydrogen

186

R' in RCOOR'

hydrocarbon group

187

Formed from an alcohol and organic (or carboxylic) acid by removal of water (dehydration)

Ester

188

The study of the cause of disease

Etiology

189

Increase in severity of a disease

Exacerbation

190

Pertaining to a gland that delivers its secretion through a duct

Exocrine

191

Originating outside an organ or part

Exogenous infections

192

A toxin produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium

Exotoxin

193

Loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained

Exsanguination

194

Exterior

External

195

The opposite of internal

External

196

The lateral, outer opening of the external auditory canal

External auditory meatus

197

Fluid or cellular debris exuding from blood vessels and deposited in tissues or tissue surfaces

Exudate

198

Usually a result of inflammation

Exudate

199

A microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen

Facultative aerobe

200

An organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence

Facultative anaerobe

201

Prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions

Facultative saprophyte

202

A common name for a triacylglycerol that is a semisolid or solid at room temperature and contains a high percentage of saturated fatty acids

Fats

203

Pertaining to or characterized by fever

Febrile

204

The microbial (enzymatic) decomposition of carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions

Fermentation

205

One in which the organisms are originally confined to one area but enter the blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body

Focal infection

206

Any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted

Fomite

207

A temporarily unossified area on the surface of the cranium of an infant

Fontanel

208

Formaldehyde gas dissolved in water at 37% by weight and 40% by volume

Formalin

209

That amount of formaldehyde necessary to overcome any nitrogen residue and cause the body proteins to become coagulated

* Formaldehyde demand
* Glutaraldehyde demand

210

A shallow depression

Fossa

211

A change of state of matter from a liquid to a solid by the loss of heat

Freezing

212

The term for the point of equilibrium between the solid and liquid states and typically employed when the temperature is decreasing

Freezing

213

Having rapid and severe onset, usually fatal

Fulminating

214

A condition or disease in which there is no recognizable change in anatomy

Functional

215

A substance that kills fungi

Fungicide

216

A group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms, lacking chlorophyll, usually bearing spores and often filamentous

* Fungus
* Fungi

217

An abscess or pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follicle

Furuncle

218

A state of matter in which the atoms or molecules move about in almost complete freedom from one another

Gases

219

Have no definite shape or volume and assume the shape and volume of their container by diffusing uniformly throughout the container

Gases

220

An infection that becomes systemic

General infection

221

Deals with the study of the widespread processes of disease, without reference to particular organs or organ systems

General pathology

222

Examples: inflammation, degeneration, necrosis or cellular death, repair, etc

General pathology

223

A substance that destroys microorganisms

Germicide

224

A secretory organ or structure

Gland

225

A cell or group of cells that can manufacture a secretion

Gland

226

Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency

Goiter

227

Study of changes in structure of the body that are readily seen with the unaided eye as a result of disease

Gross pathology

228

The condition of water that results from dissolved minerals and metallic ions such as calcium and magnesium

Hardness of water

229

Vomiting of blood

Hematemesis

230

Tumor like swelling of blood

Hematoma

231

Discharge of red blood cells in the urine

Hematuria

232

An inherited hemorrhagic disease characterized by a tendency to excessive and sometime spontaneous bleeding

Hemophilia

233

Blood in sputum

Hemoptysis

234

Escape of blood from blood vascular system

Hemorrhage

235

Genetic characteristics transmitted from parent to offspring

Hereditary

236

Abnormal protrusion of part of an organ through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contains it

Hernia

237

A gland that has both endocrine and exocrine functions

Heterocrine

238

Example: pancreas

Heterocrine

239

Organisms that must obtain their nourishment from complex organic matter

Heterotrophic bacteria

240

Chemicals that increase the capability of embalmed tissues to retain moisture

Humectants

241

A compound in which there is a chemical union between water and certain substances when they crystallize

Hydrates

242

Abnormal collection of fluid in any sacculated cavity in the body

Hydrocele

243

Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain

Hydrocephalus

244

A chemical reaction in which a substance is broken down or dissociated by water

Hydrolysis

245

A reaction between a salt and water to yield an acid and a base of unequal strengths

Hydrolysis

246

Distention of the pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys with urine as a result of obstruction

Hydronephrosis

247

Abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac

Hydropericardium

248

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity

Hydrothorax

249

Excess of blood in an area of the body

Hyperemia

250

The increase size of an organ or part due to the excessive but regulated increase in the number of its cells

Hyperplasia

251

A solution having a greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared

Hypertonic solution

252

The enlargement of an organ or part due to the increase in size of cells composing it

Hypertrophy

253

Chlorine containing compounds

* Hypochlorites
* Bleaches

254

Underdevelopment of a tissue, organ or the body

Hypoplasia

255

A solution having a lesser concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared

Hypotonic solution

256

Results from the adverse activity of medical personnel

Iatrogenic

257

Of uknown cause

Idiopathic

258

Example: essential hypertension

Idiopathic

259

The swelling and softening of tissues and organs as a result of absorbing moisture from adjacent sources

Imbibition

260

The strength of embalming fluids indicated by the number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of solution

Index

261

Usually refers to a percentage

Index

262

Percent of formaldehyde gas in an embalming fluid with an index of 25

25%

263

Synonymous with "normal flora"

Indigenous flora

264

Indicates the microbial population that lives with the host in a healthy condition

Indigenous flora

265

The formation of an area of necrosis in a tissue caused by obstruction in the artery supplying the area

Infarction

266

The state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects

Infection

267

The entry, establishment and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host

Infection

268

Beneath

Inferior

269

Lower

Inferior

270

Used medically in reference to the undersurface of an organ or indicating a structure below another structure

Inferior

271

The process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present

Infiltration

272

A tissue reaction to irritation, infection, or injury marked by localized heat, swelling, redness, pain and sometimes loss of function

Inflammation

273

That branch of chemistry that studies the properties and reactions of elements, excluding organic or certain carbon-containing compounds

Inorganic chemistry

274

A substance that kills insects

Insecticide

275

Relating to the integument

Integumentary

276

A covering

Integumentary

277

Example: skin

Integumentary

278

Within the body

Internal

279

Within or on the inside

Internal

280

The opposite of external

Internal

281

State of being intoxicated

Intoxication

282

Being poisoned by a drug or toxic substance

Intoxication

283

Extravasation of blood within the skull

Intracranial hemorrhage

284

A compound consisting of iodine combined with a carrier, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone

Iodophores

285

Often used as a preoperative skin disinfectant

Iodophores

286

An atomic or molecular species with a positive or negative electrical charge

Ion

287

An atom of an element or a group of atoms acting as one unit that has lost or gained an electron or electrons and exhibits a charge

Ion

288

A positive ion

Cation

289

A negative ion

Anion

290

Reduction in arterial blood supply

Ischemia

291

A tiny isolated mass of one kind of tissue within another type

Islet

292

Clusters of cells in the pancreas which produce insulin

Islets of Langerhans

293

A solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute as the solution to which it is compared

Isotonic solution

294

Conditions characterized by excessive concentration of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient

Jaundice

295

The point of juncture between two bones

Joint

296

An articulation

Joint

297

Any class of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group whose carbon atom is joined to two other carbon atoms

Ketones

298

Carbonyl group

C=O

299

The carbonyl group occurs within the carbon chain

Ketones

300

A chemical group composed of one carbon atom double bonded to oxygen

Carbonyl group

301

A substance that kills insect larva

Larvacide

302

Pertaining to the side of the body

Lateral

303

Away from the median plane

Lateral

304

Specific pathologic structural and functional changes or both brought about by disease

Lesion

305

The amount of poison (or radiation) that will kill 50% of the group to which it has been administered

Lethal dose 50% (LD50)

306

Disease characterized by the appearance of great numbers of immature and abnormal white blood cells

Leukemia

307

Increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood

Leucocytosis

308

Abnormal reduction in the number of white blood cells in the blood

Leucopenia

309

A substance that flows readily but does not tend to expand indefinitely

Liquids

310

Well-defined parts of an organ separated by boundaries

Lobes

311

Infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there

Local infection

312

Malignancy of lymphoid tissue

Lymphoma

313

A defect or deformity

* Malformation
* Anomaly

314

The depression in the temporal bone into which the condyle of the mandible fits

Mandibular fossa

315

A boundary such as the edge of a structure

Margin

316

Anything that has mass and occupies space

Matter

317

Temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place

Maximum temperature

318

A passage or opening

Meatus

319

A living organism capable of transmitting infections by carrying the disease agent on its external body parts or surfaces

Mechanical vector

320

Pertaining to the middle

Medial

321

Toward the median plane of the body

Medial

322

Study of disease to ascertain cause and manner of death

* Medicolegal pathology
* Forensic pathology

323

The inner or central portion of an organ in contrast to the outer portion or cortex

Medulla

324

Blood in stool

Melena

325

The change in state from a solid to a liquid

Melting

326

Bacteria that prefer moderate temperature and develop best at temperatures between 25 and 40 degrees Celsius

Mesophile

327

An element marked by luster, malleability, ductility, and conductivity of electricity and heat

Metal

328

Tend to form positive ions

Metallic elements

329

Replacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normally found there

Metaplasia

330

Transfer of a disease from its primary site to a distant location

Metastasis

331

A microorganism that requires very little free oxygen

Microaerophilic

332

Scientific study of microorganisms and their effect on other loving organisms

Microbiology

333

Study of microscopic changes that cells, tissues and organs undergo as a result of disease

* Microscopic pathology
* Histopathology

334

Infection caused by two or more organisms

Mixed infection

335

A combination of two or more substances not chemically united and not in definite proportion by mass

Mixtures

336

The smallest dose of a poison (or radiation) on record that produces death

Minimum lethal dose (MLD)

337

Temperature below which bacterial growth will not take place

Minimum temperature

338

Chemicals for which there may be greatly varying demands predicated upon the type of embalming, the environment and the arterial fluid to be used

Modifying agents

339

Necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage

* Moist gangrene
* Wet gangrene

340

May be accompanied by the invasion of saprophytic bacteria

* Moist gangrene
* Wet gangrene

341

The smallest unit of a compound which can exist alone

Molecule

342

An aggregation of atoms, specifically a chemical of two or more atoms which for a specific chemical substance

Molecule

343

Relative incidence of a disease in the population or number of cases in a given time at a given population

Morbidity rate

344

Number of deaths in a given time or place or proportion of deaths to a population

Mortality rate

345

A relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association to the mutual benefit of each

Mutualism

346

The branch of science concerned with the study of fungi

Mycology

347

Bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans and have no cell wall

Mycoplasmas

348

The smallest free-living organisms presently known being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria

Mycoplasmas

349

The study of muscles

Myology

350

The nostrils

Nares

351

The partition that divides the nasal cavity into two sections

Nasal septum

352

Pathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organism

Necrosis

353

The abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with the formation of a mass or new growth of tissue

* Neoplasm
* Tumor

354

The study of the nervous system

Neurology

355

The reaction of an acid and a base to produce salt and water

Neutralization

356

Any element that is not a metal

Nonmetal

357

Tend to form negative ions

Nonmetal

358

Organisms that are free living and relationships are not required for survival

Non-symbiotic

359

Infection acquired in a hospital

Nosocomial

360

A disease with an abnormally high rate of occurrence in members of the workforce

Occupational disease

361

A common name for a triacylglycerol that is a liquid at room temperature and contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids

Oils

362

An organism that exists as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions

Opportunist

363

Temperature at which organisms grow best

Optimum temprature

364

Pertaining to the mouth

Oral

365

A condition or disease in which there is a change in anatomy

Organic

366

That branch of chemistry that deals with certain carbon-containing compounds

Organic chemistry

367

The mouth, entrance, or outlet of any anatomical structure

Orifice

368

An opening

Orifice

369

The passage of pure solvent from a solution of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semi-permeable membrane which selectively prevents the passage of solute molecules but it is permeable to the solvent

Osmosis

370

Pressure that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semipermeable membrane

Osmotic pressure

371

Any small bone, especially one of the three bones of the middle ear

Ossicles

372

A disease marked by softening of the bones due to faulty calcification in adulthood

Osteomalacia

373

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow

Osteomyelitis

374

Loss of bone density

Osteoporosis

375

A compound consisting of oxygen combined with only one other element

Oxides

376

A disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time in many different parts of the world

Pandemic

377

Epidemic, widespread, even of worldwide event

Pandemic disease

378

An interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits

Parasitism

379

Pertaining to, or forming, the wall of a cavity

Parietal

380

Pertaining to the parietal bone

Parietal

381

A method of expressing low concentrations

Parts per million (ppm)

382

Equivalent to 1 milligram per liter

1 parts per million (ppm)

383

The state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease

Pathogenicity

384

Study of structural changes in the body caused by disease

Pathological anatomy

385

The science that deals with the study of disease

Pathology

386

The manner in which a disease develops

Pathogenesis

387

Pertaining to the front of the chest

Pectoral

388

A bond formed from a dehydration reaction between the amino group on one amino acid with the carboxyl (organic acid) group on the other amino acid

Peptide bond

389

The tabular arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number

Periodic table

390

This arrangement allows the columns of elements to represent the periodic recurrence of similar properties

Periodic table

391

Located at, or pertaining to, the outer surface of the body or body part

Peripheral

392

The outer surface of the body or body part

Periphery

393

Occurring away from the center

Peripheral

394

At right angles to another surface

Perpendicular

395

Antemortem, pinpoint, extravascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of the skin

Petechia

396

Power / potential of hydrogen

pH

397

A number signifying the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution

pH

398

The measure of hydrogen ion concentrations of a solution

pH

399

Congenital condition in which the proximal portions of the limbs are poorly developed or absent

Phocomelia

400

A change in the form or state of matter without any change in chemical composition

Physical changes

401

Properties of a substance that are observed without a change in chemical composition

Physical properties

402

Examples: color, odor, taste, solubility, density, hardness, melting point, and boiling point

Physical properties

403

Study of changes in body functions due to disease

Physiological pathology

404

Coloration caused by deposit, or lack, of colored material in the tissues

Pigmentation

405

General term used to denote any prolonged inhalation of mineral dust

Pneumoconiosis

406

Infection of the lungs

Pneumonia

407

Any substance that imperils health or life when absorbed into the body

Poison

408

A highly contagious infectious disease of the spinal cord caused by a filterable virus

Poliomyelitis

409

An increase in total red blood cell mass

Polycythemia vera

410

The linking together of monomers or basic chemical units to form a polymer

Polymerization

411

A growth or mass of tissue that protrudes from a mucous membrane

Polyp

412

Concerning an entrance to an organ, especially that through which the blood is carried to the liver

Portal

413

Toward the back

* Posterior
* Dorsal

414

Opposite of anterior

* Posterior
* Dorsal

415

Fluids designed to clear the vascular system of blood and enable the arterial solution to distribute with greater facility

* Pre-injection fluids
* Primary injection
* Capillary wash

416

Components o f embalming solutions used to inactivate the active chemical groups of proteins and amino acids

Preservatives

417

To inhibit decomposition

Preservatives

418

To kill microorganisms

Preservatives

419

Destroy odors and eliminate their further formation

Preservatives

420

To inactivate enzymes

Preservatives

421

Number of cases of disease present in a specified population at a given time

Prevalence

422

The "first" infection that a host has after a period of health

Primary infection

423

The first or initial injection, may or may not contain preservatives

* Primary injection
* Pre-injection

424

Small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids

Prion

425

Often called spongiform encephalopathies because of the postmortem appearance of the brain with large vacuoles in the cortex and cerebellum

Prion

426

Prediction of the outcome of disease

Prognosis

427

Characteristics by which substances may be identified

Properties

428

Inflammation of the prostate gland

Prostatitis

429

A biological component that is a polymer of many amino acids

Protein

430

One celled organisms of the Kingdom Protista

Protozoa

431

Most are unicellular although some are colonist

Protozoa

432

Science that deals with the study of protozoa

Protozoology

433

A part that is prominent beyond a surface, like a knob

Protuberance

434

Nearest the point of attachment, the center of the body, or a point of reference

Proximal

435

The opposite of distal

Proximal

436

Bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 and 25 degrees Celsius

Psychrophile

437

Condition in which spontaneous bleeding occurs in the subcutaneous tissues, causing the appearance of purple patches on the skin

Purpura

438

A small elevation of the skin containing pus

Pustule

439

The decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria

Putrefaction

440

The junction of the pubic bones on the midline of the body

Pubic symphysis

441

The smooth muscle around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum

Pyloric sphincter

442

Surface-active agents that are generally used for disinfection of skin, oral and nasal cavities, as well as instruments

Quaternary ammonium compounds

443

Reappearance of symptoms after a period of remission

Recurrent

444

Remission

Abatement

445

The replacement of damaged cells with identical cells

Regeneration

446

Temporary cessation of symptoms of disease

Remission

447

Kidney stones

Renal calculi

448

Physical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissue by the growth of healthy new cells, not necessarily the same type, or by surgery

Repair

449

Pertaining to or employed in reproduction

Reproductive

450

The termination of the inflammatory response with the affected part returning to its normal state

Resoltuion

451

Pertaining to respiration

Respiratory

452

Supplemental fluids that may enhance arterial fluids by the addition of special chemicals

Restorative fluids

453

Example: humectants

Restorative fluids

454

A disease of infants and young children caused by deficiency of vitamin D resulting in defective bone growth

Rickets

455

A genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria

Rickettsia

456

Area of science that studies Rickettsia

Rickettsiology

457

Pertaining to, producing, or formed from saliva

Salivary

458

A gland of the oral cavity that secretes saliva

Salivary gland

459

Any group of substances that result from the reaction between acids and bases other than water

Salts

460

The reaction between a fat and a strong base to produce glycerol and the salt of a fatty acid

Saponification

461

Glycerol and the salt of a fatty acid

Soap

462

A cube-like packet of eight spherical bacteria

Sarcinae

463

Latin for bundle

Sarcina

464

A solution containing all of the solute the solvent is able to hold at a certain temperature and pressure

Saturated solution

465

Infection caused by a different organism than the one causing the primary infection

Secondary infection

466

That injection taking place after the primary injection

Secondary injection

467

First injection; pre-injection

Primary injection

468

Condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood

Septicemia

469

A wall dividing two cavities

Septum

470

The watery portion of the blood after coagulation occurs

Serum

471

An oval nodule of bone

Sesamoid bone

472

Objective disturbances produced by disease, observed by physician, nurse or person attending patient

Signs

473

Examples: pulse, fever, heart rate

Signs

474

A compound whose hydrolytic products are fatty acids and alcohols

Simple lipids

475

A cavity within a bone

Sinus

476

A dilated channel for venous blood

Sinus

477

Any cavity having a relatively narrow opening

Sinus

478

Pertaining to the skeleton

Skeletal

479

The condensed state of matter having a definite shape and volume

Solids

480

The conversion of a liquid or a gas into a solid form

Solidification

481

The measure of how well two substances mix

Solubility

482

A substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution

Solute

483

The component of a solution present in a lesser amount

Solute

484

A homogeneous mixture of one or more substances dissolved in a sufficient quantity of solvent

Solution

485

The process of dissolving

Solvation

486

A substance that does the dissolving in a solution

Solvent

487

The component of a solution present in a greater amount

Solvent

488

Deals with the specific features of disease in relation to particular organs or organ systems

Special pathology

489

A circular muscle constricting an orifice

Sphincter

490

Congenital defect in which part of the vertebral column is absent or incomplete closure

Spina bifida

491

A genus of spiral bacteria having a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement

* Spirillum
* Spirilla

492

A genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense

Spirochete

493

Movement in these organisms occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments that run the length of the cell

Spirochete

494

Long filaments

Endoflagella

495

A disease that occurs occasionally in a random or isolated manner

Sporadic

496

A disease which occurs occasionally or in scattered instances

Sporadic

497

A genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular, grape-like clusters

Staphylococcus

498

A physical property of matter

State of matter

499

Physical properties of matter

* Solid
* Liquid
* Gas

500

Condition of phase in the physical composition of a substance at a given temperature and pressure

State of matter

501

Abnormal constriction of a channel or orifice

Stenosis

502

A process of completely removing or destroying all life forms and / or their products on or in a substance

Sterilization

503

Rod-shaped bacteria occurring in chains

Streptobacilli

504

Spherical shaped bacteria occurring in chains

Streptococci

505

A microbe that can only live in the presence of free oxygen

* Strict aerobe
* Obligate aerobe

506

A microbe that can only survive in the absence of free oxygen

* Strict anaerobe
* Obligate anaerobe

507

An organism that is completely dependent on its living host for survival

* Strict parasite
* Obligate parasite

508

An organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter

* Strict saprophyte
* Obligate saprophyte

509

A physical change of state during which a substance changes directly from a solid to a gas

Sublimation

510

Pertaining to or situated near the surface

Superficial

511

Higher than

Superior

512

Situated above something else

Superior

513

Located above the kidney

Suprarenal

514

Fluid injected for purposes other than preservation and disinfection

* Supplemental fluids
* Accessory chemicals

515

Categories of supplemental fluids

* Pre-injection
* Co-injection
* Humectants / restorative fluids

516

Additional germicides added to embalming fluids

Supplementary germicides

517

Study of tissue specimens excised surgically in a major or minor operation

Surgical pathology

518

Relating to a suture, or the line of union in an immovable articulation, such as between the cranial bones

Sutural

519

The material upon which an enzyme works

Substrate

520

The force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize surface area

Surface tension

521

Chemicals that will reduce the molecular cohesion of a liquid and thereby enable it to flow through smaller apertures

* Surfactants
* Surface tension reducers
* Wetting agents
* Penetrating agents

522

A mixture of a solute and a solvent in which the size of the solute particles is greater than 100 nanometers

Suspension

523

Particles of solute do not pass through filters or membranes

Suspension

524

Organisms live in close nutritional relationships

Symbiotic

525

Required by one or both members

Symbiotic

526

A line of fusion between two bones that are separate in early development

Symphysis

527

The harmonious action of two or more microorganisms producing an effect that neither could produce alone

Synergism

528

Organized groupings of related structures or organs that perform certain functions together

Systems

529

Subjective disturbances caused by disease that are felt or experienced by patient but not directly measurable

Symptoms

530

Examples: pain, headache

Symptoms

531

Set of signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease

Syndrome

532

Grouping of four spherical shaped cells

Tetracocci

533

The study of those physical and chemical changes in the human body that are caused by the process of death

Thanatochemistry

534

Bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures, between 40 and 70 degrees Celsius

Thermophile

535

The formation or presence of an attached blood clot

Thrombosis

536

The presence of toxins in the blood

Toxemia

537

A poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or pathogenic bacteria that is poisonous to humans

Toxin

538

Poisonous

Toxic

539

A poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial or fungal origin

Toxin

540

An organism that due to its own virulence is able to produce disease

True pathogen

541

Implantation and development of the fertilized ovum in a uterine (fallopian) tube

Tubal pregnancy

542

A covering or layer

Tunic

543

An open sore or lesion of skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue

Ulcer

544

A solution containing less of the solute than can be held in solution by the solvent

Unsaturated solution

545

A toxic condition caused by retention in the blood of waste products normally excreted in the urine

Uremia

546

Pertaining to the secretion or containment of urine

Urinary

547

Composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra

Urinary system

548

The neutralization product of formaldehyde by ammonia

* Urotropin
* Methenamine

549

Ammonia

C6H12N4

550

Any one of various membranous structures in a hollow organ or passage that temporarily closes to permit the flow of fluid in one direction only

Valve

551

Failure of a heart valve to close tightly, thus allowing regurgitation of blood

* Valvular insufficiency
* Valvular incompetence

552

The physical change from a liquid to a gas

Vaporization

553

Pertaining to or composed of vessels

Vascular

554

The blood vessels, including arteries, capillaries, and veins

Vascular system

555

Located toward the front of the body

* Ventral
* Anterior

556

Liquids that serve as solvents for the numerous ingredients incorporated in embalming solutions

Vehicles

557

Examples: water, alcohol

Vehicles

558

A narrow, worm-shaped tube connected to the cecum

Vermiform appendix

559

Blister-like elevation of skin containing serous fluid

Vesicle

560

To move rapidly

Vibrio

561

Vibrate

Vibrio

562

A genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas

Vibrio

563

An agent destructive to viruses

* Virucide
* Viricide

564

The study of viruses and viral diseases

Virology

565

Relative power of an organism to produce disease

Virulence

566

One of a group of minute infectious agents, with certain exceptions not resolved in the light microscope, and characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and by the ability to replicate only within living host cells

Virus

567

Infectious agent not resolved in the light microscope

Poxviruses

568

Able to reproduce with genetic continuity and the possibility of mutation

Virus

569

Range from 200-300 nm to 15 nm in size and are morphologically heterogenous, occurring as rod-shaped, spherical, or polyhedral, and tadpole-shaped forms

Virus

570

Masses of the spherical or polyhedral forms may be made up of orderly arrays, to give a crystalline structure

Virus

571

The individual particle consists of nucleic acid, DNA or RNA (but not both) and a protein shell, which contains and protects the nucleic acid and which may be multilayered

Virus

572

Individual particle in a virus

Virion

573

Nucleic acid in a virus

Nucleoid

574

Protein shell

Capsid

575

Separated into three subgroups on the basis of host specificity

Viruses

576

Virus subgroups

* Bacterial viruses
* Animal viruses
* Plant viruses

577

Classified as to their origin, mode of transmission, or the manifestations they produce

Virus

578

Reoviruses origin

* Respiratory
* Enteric

579

Abroviruses mode of transmission

Mosquitoes

580

Sometimes named for the geographic location in which they were first isolated

Virus

581

Pertaining to the internal organs contained within a cavity

Visceral

582

The internal organs contained within a cavity

Viscera

583

The state of being sticky or gummy

Viscosity

584

Resistance offered by a fluid to change form or relative position of its particles due to attraction of molecules to each other

Viscosity

585

The resistance that a liquid exhibits to the flow of one layer over another arising from the molecular attraction between the molecules of a liquid

Viscosity

586

A type of lipid formed from the combination of unsaturated and / or saturated fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols

Wax

587

Pertaining to the cheek bone

Zygomatic

588

Cheek bone

Zygoma

Decks in MOR 260: National Board Exam Review Class (42):