Pathology Comprehensive Exam Flashcards Preview

MOR 260: National Board Exam Review > Pathology Comprehensive Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Comprehensive Exam Deck (105)
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1
Q

Which one of these is not a post-mortem condition following death from a malignant neoplasm:

  • Weight gain
  • Emaciation
  • Deformity
  • Hemorrhage
  • Discoloration
A

Weight gain

2
Q

Growths that project on stalks from mucous membranes:

A

Polyps

3
Q

Which gland(s) secrete a hormone which regulates the calcium levels of the body:

A

Thyroid

4
Q

Acute or chronic inflammation of the stomach is called:

A

Gastritis

5
Q

The cardinal sign(s) of inflammation:

A
  • Heat
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Redness
6
Q

A stroke is also known as a:

A

Cerebrovascular accident

7
Q

The causes of this condition are not well known, but there is a uniform enlargement of the thyroid gland and increased secretion of thyroxine and is termed:

A

Grave’s Disease

8
Q

A collection of edematous fluid in the abdominal cavity is called:

A

Asites

9
Q

An increased accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain:

A

Hydrocephalus

10
Q

An infection of the heart valves during Rheumatic Fever is one caused:

A

Mitral stenosis

11
Q

A condition in which the oxygen-carrying pigment Hemoglobin is below normal

A

Anemia

12
Q

This inflammatory condition which affects the membrane that covers the CNS and is caused by a bacteria is:

A

Meningitis

13
Q

Purple or reddish spots of discoloration caused by bleeding under the skin. Most common in the elderly:

A

Purpura

14
Q

A malignant neoplasm of the nervous system:

A

Glioma

15
Q

Increased production of red blood cells by the bone marrow:

A
  • Erythrocytosis

* Polycythemia vera

16
Q

Addison’s Disease results from a deficiency of _____ hormones:

A

Adrenocortical

17
Q

This is an area of purplish discoloration and is sometimes referred to as “black and blue”:

A

Ecchymosis

18
Q

This chronic disease is generally a non-killing degeneration of the brain causing severe disability:

A

Parkinson’s Disease

19
Q

A chronic disease of the nervous system characterized by patches of demyelination and by remission and relapse is:

A

Multiple sclerosis

20
Q

Enlargement of an organ due to an increase in size of constituent cells:

A

Hypertrophy

21
Q

A hyperplastic response of the thyroid tissue to a deficiency in iodine, which is an important component of thyroxine and will cause:

A

Goiter

22
Q

Acquired cretinism:

A

Myxedema

23
Q

This is a congenital disease which results from an inutero developmental defect, it effects the motor system of the brain:

A

Cerebral palsy

24
Q

Swelling filled with blood and resembling a tumor is called:

A

Hematoma

25
Q

The loss of cerebral control after a head injury without any obvious signs of an inorganic lesion is a:

A

Concussion

26
Q

Inflammation of the testes is called:

A

Orchitis

27
Q

A type of disease that runs a slow course, rather mild as to symptoms, and may last for weeks, months, and years is called:

A

Chronic

28
Q

The prediction of the probable outcome of a disease is called the:

A

Prognosis

29
Q

Inflammation of the gallbladder:

A

Cholecystitis

30
Q

Masses of tortuous veins in the anorectum area:

A

Hemorrhoids

31
Q

The term which means a nose bleed is:

A

Epistaxis

32
Q

Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal area is called:

A

Cryptorchism

33
Q

A benign neoplasm that resembles a wart:

A

Papilloma

34
Q

A disease that results from the activity of physicians:

A

Iatrogenic

35
Q

A disease caused by hypoadrenalism is:

A

Addison’s Disease

36
Q

The manner in which a disease develops is called:

A

Pathogenesis

37
Q

An inflammatory condition of the gums of the mouth is technically referred to as:

A

Gingivitis

38
Q

The study of the cause of a disease is called:

A

Etiology

39
Q

Inflammation of the cervix uteri:

A

Endocervicitis

40
Q

Inflammation of a joint that may be caused by microorganisms or degenerative joint disease. It is often accompanied by changes in structure:

A

Arthritis

41
Q

Benign tumor derived from vascular tissue:

A

Angioma

42
Q

A collapsed or airless condition of the lungs:

A

Atelectasis

43
Q

Hypoactivity of the anterior pituitary gland will cause:

A

Dwarfism

44
Q

Interconnected, pus-filled, inflamed hair-roots:

A
  • Furuncle

* ???

45
Q

A malignant tumor of cartilage is:

A

Chondrosarcoma

46
Q

The accumulation of serous fluid in the membrane surrounding the testes:

A

Hydrocele

47
Q

An organism which is capable of causing a disease is called a(n):

A

Pathogen

48
Q

This important gland is sometimes called the master gland:

A

Pituitary

49
Q

Death from chilling or extreme exposure is termed:

A

Hypothermia

50
Q

A congenital defect in which there are more than the usual number of fingers or toes is called:

A

Polydactylism

51
Q

A free floating foreign particle in the bloodstream is known as:

A

Embolus

52
Q

A disease caused by a change in the structure of a tissue is:

A

Functional

53
Q

A condition in which there is a congenital absence of normal coloring is called:

A

Albinism

54
Q

Localized death of tissue in a still-living body, possibly caused by infection, extreme heat or lack of blood supply:

A

Necrosis

55
Q

Diabetes mellitus is a malfunction of which gland?

A

Pancreas

56
Q

A benign tumor of fatty tissue:

A

Lipoma

57
Q

A disease whose exact cause is unknown is called:

A

Idiopathic

58
Q

What is a complication of diabetes mellitus:

A
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Vascular obstruction
  • Gangrene
59
Q

Death of tissue caused by a lack of blood supply:

A

Infarction

60
Q

The thickening of the walls, calcium deposits and narrowing of the lumen in an artery describes:

A

Arteriosclerosis

61
Q

Generalized edema is known as:

A

Anasarca

62
Q

Ectopic pregnancy refers to a pregnancy:

A

Outside the uterus

63
Q

The spread of tumor cells from one part of the body to another by blood or lymph is called:

A

Metastasis

64
Q

A condition in which a kidney becomes distended with urine:

A

Hydronephrosis

65
Q

Another name for pleural effusion is:

A

Hydrothorax

66
Q

Which of the following is not considered a predisposing factor regarding the cause of disease?

  • Malnutrition
  • Trauma
  • Occupation
  • Sex
A

Trauma

67
Q

A nonmalignant tumor of the female reproductive system containing elements derived from the ectoderm (Hair, teeth):

A
  • Dermoid cyst

* Teratoma

68
Q

Hypersensitivity to particular antigens:

A

Allergies

69
Q

Black, tarry feces caused by bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract:

A

Melena

70
Q

A disease characterized by a rapid onset and course is said to be:

A

Acute

71
Q

Proteins recognized as foreign by the immune system:

A

Antigens

72
Q

A condition of arrested physical and mental development caused by lack of thyroxin production:

A

Cretinism

73
Q

Hepatitis may be caused by:

A

Viral infection

74
Q

A fulminating disease is:

A

Rapid onset and relatively short duration

75
Q

What would be an exciting cause of disease:

A

Radiation

76
Q

A disease marked by progressive destructive changes in the brain. It leads to personality changes and loss of intellect; death will occur in 10-15 years

A

Alzheimer’s disease

77
Q

CVA / TIA involves a rupture or blockage of a vessel in the:

A

Brain

78
Q

Which of the following is a viral infection:

  • Cruetzfeldt-Jacobs
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Encephalitis
  • Epilepsy
A

Encephalitis

79
Q

Acute inflammation of the colon is ceded:

A

Colitis

80
Q

The excessive production of white blood cells:

A

Leukocytosis

81
Q

A congenital defect in which part of one or more vertebrae fails to develop:

A

Spina bifida

82
Q

Meningitis may be caused by viruses, or by bacteria such as:

A

Neisseria meningitidis

83
Q

Carcinoma of the prostate is a kind of:

A

Adenocarcinoma

84
Q

An abnormal increase in the size of the cavities of the heart caused by hypertension is an example of:

A

Dilatation

85
Q

Lips are covered with which type of tissue:

A

Epithelium

86
Q

This is a condition in which excessive growth secretion occurs in the adult after normal bone ossification has set in is called:

A

Acromegaly

87
Q

A collection of edematous fluid in the pleural cavity is called:

A

Hydrothorax

88
Q

A group of cancers characterized by disorganized proliferation of white blood cells in the bone marrow:

A

Leukemia

89
Q

Low glucose levels is referred to as:

A

Hypoglycemia

90
Q

This is a hemorrhage in which blood collects between the dura mater and the skull:

A

Extradural hematoma

91
Q

Vomiting blood, or hemorrhaging from the stomach is called:

A

Hematemesis

92
Q

Encephalitis is an inflammation of the:

A

Brain

93
Q

Lack of blood supply:

A

Ischemia

94
Q

Excessive production of human growth hormone by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland may cause:

A
  • Giantism
  • Gigantism
  • Acromegaly
95
Q

A decrease in the size of a fully developed tissue is called:

A

Atrophy

96
Q

Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex leads to a disease called _____; its symptoms include adiposity and fatigue:

A

Cushing’s disease

97
Q

An increase in the size of a part due to an increase in the number of cells is:

A

Hyperplasia

98
Q

A disease which affects a large number of persons in a community at one time is called:

A

Epidemic

99
Q

A disease that is transmitted from parent to infant by way of genetics is called:

A

Congenital

100
Q

Pin point hemorrhages are also called:

A

Petechiae

101
Q

Mechanical injury that causes a fracture, bruise, nerve damage, etc, is known as:

A

Trauma

102
Q

A disease characterized by a high fever is called:

A

Febrile

103
Q

A temporary let-up of the signs and symptoms of a disease:

A

Remission

104
Q

The branch of pathology dealing with accidents, homicides and suicides:

A
  • Medicolegal

* Forensic

105
Q

What condition is most often associated with pneumonia?

A

Sinusitis

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