Endocrine glands II Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Cell Biology > Endocrine glands II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine glands II Deck (45):
1

How are the epithelial cells arranged in parathyroid glands?

Cords or clusters

2

What are the cells of the parathyroid gland?

1. Chief cells2. Oxyphil cells3. Intermediate cells

3

Which parathyroid cells have secretory granules that contain PTH?

Chief cells

4

What are the effects of PTH?

Regulates calcium and phosphate levels in the blood

5

What is PTH's function in bone?

Attaches to osteoblast receptors, causing them to release osteoclast stimulating factor, which triggers osteoclast activity. Calcium is freed from the bone to enter bloodstream (returning calcium levels to normal)

6

What is PTH's function in the kidney?

1. Conserves calcium (prevents loss in urine)2. Excretes phosphate (promotes loss in urine)

7

What is PTH's role in the GI tract?

Controls formation of vitamin D in the kidneys, which facilitates calcium absorption in the GI tract

8

What does calcitonin do to blood calcium levels?

Decreases to normal

9

What happens during hypoparathyroidism (or removal of parathyroid glands)?

Hypocalcemia, Tetany

10

What happens during hyperparathyroidism?

Hypercalcemia, urinary tract stones

11

Which pancreatic cells produce glucagon?

Alpha

12

What do the alpha cells of the pancreas produce?

Glucagon

13

Which pancreatic cells produce insulin?

Beta

14

What do the beta cells of the pancreas produce?

Insulin

15

Which pancreatic cells produce somatostatin?

Delta

16

What do the delta cells of the pancreas produce?

Somatostatin

17

Which pancreatic cells produce gastrin?

G cells

18

What do the G cells of the pancreas produce?

Gastrin

19

Which pancreatic cells produce pancreatic polypeptide?

PP cells (F cells)

20

What do the PP (F) cells of the pancreas produce?

Pancreatic polypeptide

21

What is the function of somatostatin?

Reduces smooth muscle contraction of digestive tract and gall bladder

22

What is the function of gastrin?

Stimulates parietal cells of the stomach mucosa to produce HCl

23

What is the function of pancreatic polypeptide?

Inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretions (digestive juices)

24

Which adrenal region produces corticosteroids?

Cortex

25

What does the adrenal cortex produce?

Corticosteroids

26

Which adrenal region produces catecholamines?

Medulla

27

What does the adrenal medulla produce?

Catecholamines

28

How is the zona glomerulosa arranged?

Cords and clusters

29

What are the notable histological characteristics of the zona glomerulosa?

1. Abundant sER2. Lipid droplets

30

What type of hormone is synthesized in the zona glomerulosa?

Mineralocorticoids

31

What is the main mineralocorticoid produced in the zona glomerulosa?

Aldosterone

32

What is the target of aldosterone?

Distal convoluted tubule of kidney

33

What is the function of aldosterone?

1. Stimulate water balance2. Absorption of sodium3. Excretion of potassium

34

How are the cells arranged in the renal zona fasciculata?

Spongiocytes are arranged in radial columns with sinusoidal capillaries running in between

35

What are the notable histological characteristics of the zona fasciculata?

1. Abundant sER2. Abundant Golgi3. Lipofuscin

36

What type of hormone is synthesized in the zona fasciculata?

Glucocorticoids

37

What are the glucocorticoids produced in the zona fasciculata?

1. Cortisol2. Corticosterone

38

What is the function of the glucocorticoids?

Control of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism

39

What causes Cushing's syndrome?

Small tumors of the basophils in the anterior pituitary gland. Tumors produce excess ACTH which overstimulates the suprarenal cortex - excess cortisol is produced. Symptoms are obesity, impotency in males, amenorrhea in females

40

How are the cells of the zona reticularis arranged?

Anastomosing cords

41

What type of hormone is produced in the zona reticularis?

Androgens

42

What is the developmental derivation of the suprarenal medulla?

Neural crest cells

43

What are the cells of the suprarenal medulla?

1. Chromaffin cells2. Sympathetic ganglion cells

44

What do chromaffin cells synthesize?

Catecholamines

45

What is the function of the sympathetic ganglion cells?

In CT of medulla; send axons to cortex where they modulate cortical activity and innervate blood vessels