Flashcards in Vascular biology III Deck (29):
What are factors that contribute to vascular wall stress?
Elevation in BP or increased flow
How does high flow affect an vessel?
1. Larger lumen diameter2. Larger overall diameter3. Wall thickness stays the same
How does low flow affect a vessel?
1. Smaller lumen diameter2. Smaller overall diameter3. Wall thickness stays the same
How does a large artery respond to increased pressure?
Outward hypertrophy: 1. Thicker wall (larger overall diameter)2. Same lumenal diameter
How does a small artery respond to increased pressure?
Inward hypertrophy:1. Wall gets thicker in an INWARD direction (same overall diameter)2. Smaller lumenal diameter
How does an arteriole respond to increased pressure?
Three options:Inward hypertrophy:1. Increased wall thickness2. Decreased lumenal diameter3. Same overall thicknessInward (eutrophic) remodeling1. Decreased wall thickness2. Decreased wall diameterRarefaction (disappears)
What are the three layers of the heart?
1. Endocardium2. Myocardium3. Epicardium
What is found in the subendocardium?
1. Loose CT2. Small blood vessels3. Nerve fibers4. Purkinje cells or fibers (ventricles only)
What are the layers of the endocardium?
1. Endothelium2. Subendothelial layer3. Myoelastic layer4. Subendocardium
What are the three types of cardiocytes?
1. Contractile2. Myoendocrine3. Specialized conductive
What are the important functions / characteristics of myoendocrine cells?
1. Atrial natriuretic factor2. B-type natriuretic factor ventricles)3. Diuresis and vasodilation
Which myoendocrine cell is elevated in CHF?
B-type natriuretic factor
What is anchored to the cardiac skeleton?
Cardiac muscles and valves
What are the three layers of AV valves?
1. Atrialis2. Spongiosa3. Fibrosa
What are the three layers of semilunar valves?
1. Fibrosa2. Spongiosa3. Ventricularis
What is the function of the atrialis layer of AV valves?
Helps to contract valve
What is the function of the spongiosa layer in AV valves?
Serves as a shock absorber
What is the function of the fibrosa layer in AV and semilunar valves?
What are characteristics of SA node cells?
1. Smaller than atrial muscle cells2. Contain fewer myofibrils
Where are Purkinje fibers located?
Cardiac stem cells and early committed cells can differentiate into what types of cells?
Cardiomyocytes, SMCs, and endothelial cells
Activation of what cells can reconstitute necrotic myocardium?
Cardiac stem cells and early committed cells
Where are cardiac stem cells and early committed cells located?
Do lymphatic capillaries contain pericytes or RBCs?
Do lymphatic capillaries contain leukocytes?
What are characteristics of lymphatic capillaries?
1. Thin blind-ended vessels2. Lined by a single layer of endothelial cells3. Basal lamina is INCOMPLETE or ABSENT4. Anchoring fibrils (microfibrils)5. Pericytes and smooth muscle cells ABSENT
What are the characteristics of lymphatic ducts?
1. Similar to veins in structure2. Smooth muscle is found3. Vasa vasorum present
LYVE-1 is specific to what type of cell?
Lymphatic endothelial cell