Nervous tissue I Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Cell Biology > Nervous tissue I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous tissue I Deck (52):
1

What are Nissl bodies?

Stacks of rER

2

What are characteristics of the nucleus in a nerve cell?

Large, clear, euchromatic, dense nucleolus

3

Does mitosis occur in adult nerve cells?

No

4

What is chromatolysis?

Dissolution of Nissl substance following injury

5

What is Kevin's favorite food?

( ) )=========D

6

Are dendrites myelinated?

No, never

7

What is the function of dendrites?

Receive stimuli from epithelial receptor cells or other neurons and transmit to cell body

8

What is the protein associated with anterograde transport?

Kinesin

9

What is the direction of anterograde transport?

Away from cell body

10

Transport away from the cell body is what kind of transport?

Anterograde

11

Transport toward the cell body is what kind of transport?

Retrograde

12

What is the direction of retrograde transport?

Toward the cell body

13

What protein is associated with retrograde transport?

Dynein

14

Viruses that enter nerve endings travel to the CNS via what type of transport?

Retrograde

15

What are characteristics of a bipolar neuron?

1. Two processes (dendrite + axon)2. Found in retina, inner ear, nose

16

What are characteristics of a multipolar neuron?

1. Numerous dendrites, single axon2. Includes motor neurons and interneurons

17

What are characteristics of a unipolar neuron?

1. Has only an axon that bifurcates into two processes (T-shaped)2. Impulses are transmitted down axon, bypassing cell body3. Enclosed in CN sensory ganglia and dorsal root ganglion

18

What is the function of neuroglia?

Provide physical and physiological support to nerve cells

19

Can neuroglia divide / form tumors?

No

20

Does the CNS have connective tissue?

No

21

What are astrocytes?

Largest nerve cells; exhibit mat-like vascular feet / pedicles, and ensheate all blood vessels covered by a basal lamina

22

Largest nerve cells; exhibit mat-like vascular feet / pedicles, and ensheate all blood vessels covered by a basal lamina:

Astrocytes

23

What are the functions of astrocytes?

1. May assist in BBB2. Form a deep layer to pia mater3. Form scar tissue following injury4. Involved in tissue repair5. Monitor chemical and ionic composition in extracellular space around nerve cells

24

What are protoplasmic astrocytes?

1. Primarily in gray matter2. Granular cytoplasm3. Processes cover synapses, neurons, blood vessels

25

What are fibrous astrocytes?

1. Primarily in white matter2. Long, thin processes3. Light staining4. Associated with blood vessels and pia mater5. Cover Nodes of Ranvier and synapses6. Most common brain tumor in adults

26

What are oligodendrocytes?

1. Smaller than astroctyes2. Form rows in white matter3. Many mitochondria, Golgi, rER, microtubules

27

1. Smaller than astroctyes2. Form rows in white matter3. Many mitochondria, Golgi, rER, microtubules

Oligodendrocytes

28

1. Primarily in white matter2. Long, thin processes3. Light staining4. Associated with blood vessels and pia mater5. Cover Nodes of Ranvier and synapses6. Most common brain tumor in adults

Fibrous astrocytes

29

1. Primarily in gray matter2. Granular cytoplasm3. Processes cover synapses, neurons, blood vessels

Protoplasmic astrocytes

30

What are some characteristics of microglia?

1. Small cell bodies2. Elongated nuclei3. Condensed chromatin4. Present in white and gray matter5. Derived from monocytes6. Phagocytic

31

1. Small cell bodies2. Elongated nuclei3. Condensed chromatin4. Present in white and gray matter5. Derived from monocytes6. Phagocytic

Microglia

32

What are characteristics of ependymal cells?

1. Cuboidal-columnar2. Line brain and spinal cord cavities containing CSF3. Have motile cilia4. Abundant mitochondria5. Apical Golgi, sparse rER

33

1. Cuboidal-columnar2. Line brain and spinal cord cavities containing CSF3. Have motile cilia4. Abundant mitochondria5. Apical Golgi, sparse rER

Ependymal cells

34

Where are unmyelinated axons located?

CNS and PNS

35

In the CNS, are unmyelinated axons covered by glia?

No

36

Where / how are unmyelinated axons located in the PNS?

In a groove of a Schwann cell

37

Are there Nodes of Ranvier along unmyelinated axons?

No

38

What myelinates axons in the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes

39

What is myelin?

A lipoprotein, formed by concentric layers of cell membrane

40

What myelinates axons in the PNS?

Schwann cells

41

What is the Node of Ranvier?

The unmyelinated segment of the axon between two Schwann cells

42

What is the internodal segment?

Myelin-covered segments of an axon

43

Schwann cells derive from the ____________

Neural crest

44

What is the endoneurium?

Loose CT with collagen fibrils that covers individual axons, synthesized by Schwann cells

45

Loose CT with collagen fibrils that covers individual axons, synthesized by Schwann cells:

Endoneurium

46

What is the perineurium?

Specialized CT, encloses Schwann cell-ensheathed axons and endoneurium

47

Specialized CT, encloses Schwann cell-ensheathed axons and endoneurium:

Periuneurium

48

What is the epineurium?

Dense irregular fibrous CT with elastic fibers; covers several nerve bundles which forms gross nerve

49

Dense irregular fibrous CT with elastic fibers; covers several nerve bundles which forms gross nerve:

Epineurium

50

What are satellite cells?

Support cell bodies of neurons housed in ganglia and function like Schwann cells but without myelination ability

51

Support cell bodies of neurons housed in ganglia and function like Schwann cells but without myelination ability:

Satellite cells

52

What is multiple sclerosis?

Autoimmune disease affecting only the white matter of the CNS; Abs attack the myelin sheath, leading to a decrease in impulse conduction