Flashcards in Renal system Deck (37):
What is enclosed in the renal sinus?
1. Branches of renal, vein, lymph vessels2. Ureter and nerve fibers
What makes up the kidney capsule?
1. Outer layer - collagen and fibroblasts2. Inner layer - myofibroblasts
What comprises the cortical labyrinth?
1. Region between medullary rays 2. Renal corpuscles3. Convoluted tubules 4. Collecting tubules
What comprises the medullary rays?
1. Medullary tissue extending form base of pyramids into the cortex2. Straight tubules3. Collecting ducts
What comprises the renal columns of Bertin?
1. Reside within and are part of the medulla2. Straight tubules3. Collecting ducts
Where is the vasa recta found?
What makes up a kidney lobe?
1. Renal pyramid2. Associated cortical tissue at base of pyramid3. Associated cortical columns
What makes up a kidney lobule?
1. Central medullary ray and surrounding cortical tissue2. A collecting duct3. All nephrons that empty into the collecting duct
What is a uniferous tubule?
1. Nephron + collecting tubule2. Consists of epithelium and is covered by basal lamina exteriorly
What are the components of the nephron?
1. Renal corpuscle2. Bowman's capsule3. Bowman's space4. Vascular pole5. Urinary pole6. Filtration barrier
What are the features of the glomerulus?
1. Fenestrated capillaries2. Ultrafiltrate oozes out of glomerulus by passing through filtration barrier
What are the features of Bowman's capsule?
1. Proximal end of nephron2. Has visceral and parietal layers
What are the features of the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule?
1. Covers glomerulus2. Composed of podocytes
What is Bowman's space (urinary space)?
1. Space between visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule2. Contains ultrafiltrate
What is the vascular pole?
1. Site where afferent golumerular arteriole enters renal corpuscle (mesangial cells)2. Site where efferent golumerular arteriole leaves the renal corpuscle (greater resistance to flow)
What is the urinary pole?
Contains initial part of the proximal convoluted tubule
What is the filtration barrier?
Inside-out consists of:1. Endothelial surface layer of glomerular capillaries 2. Fenestrated (no diaphragms) endothelium of glomerular capillary3. Basal lamina4. Subpodocyte space5. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule (podocytes)
What are the discontinuous layers of the filtration barrier?
1. Fenestrated (no diaphragms) endothelium of glomerular capillaries2. Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule (podocytes)
What are the features of proximal convoluted tubule?
1. Simple cuboid epithelium2. Eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm3. Microvilli4. Basement membrane
What is the proximal straight tubule?
Thick descending limb of the loop of Henle
What are the thin limbs of the loop of Henle?
1. Thin descending limb - hairpin turn2. Henle's loop - entire U-shaped portion of a nephron3. Thin ascending limb - segment after hairpin turn
What lines the entire thin limb of loop of Henle?
Simple squamous epithelium
What are the features of the distal tubule?
1. Distal straight tubule2. Macula densa3. Distal convoluted tubule
What are the features of the distal straight tubule?
1. Thick ascending limb of loop of Henle2. Low cuboidal epithelium with few microvilli3. More mitochondria than cells of PCT
What are the features of the macula densa?
1. Modified segment of the distal tubule2. Between afferent and efferent arterioles
What are the features of the distal convoluted tubule?
1. Much shorter and less tortuous than PCT2. Wide clear lumen3. Pale granular cytoplasm4. Smaller cells, more cells per c/s profile
What are features of the collecting tubule?
1. Part of uriniferous tubule2. NOT part of nephron3. Empties into a connecting tubule which drains into cortical or medullary collecting duct
What are the papillary collecting ducts of Bellini?
1. Formed as several medullary collecting tubules converge2. Open in the area cribrosa3. Lined with tall columnar epithelium
What comprises the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
Macula densa and JG cells
What are the JG cells?
1. Part of the afferent glomerular arteriole2. Modified smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of the afferent glomerular arteriole3. Contain renin (proteolytic enzyme)
What are the features of the extraglomerular mesangial cells?
Reside in interval bordered by the afferent arteriole, macula densa, efferent arteriole, and vascular pole of renal corpuscle
What is the renal interstitium?
1. Contains small amount of CT2. Fibroblasts, macrophages
What is the direction of blood flow in the kidney?
1. Renal artery (anterior and posterior divisions)2. Segment arteries3. Lobar arteris4. Interlobar arteries5. Arcuate arteries6. Interlobular arteries7. Afferent glomerular arterioles
What kind of epithelium lines the renal papilla and minor calyx?
What characterizes the muscularis layer of the ureter?
1. Upper 2/3 has outer circular, inner longitudinal layer2. Lower 1/3 has an extra layer of outer longitudinal
What layer of the muscularis in the urinary bladder forms the internal sphincter muscle?