Integument Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Cell Biology > Integument > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integument Deck (66):
1

What constitutes the integumentary system?

1. Skin2. Sweat glands3. Sebaceous glands4. Hair5. Nails

2

What type of epithelium makes up the epidermis?

Stratified squamous keratinized

3

What type of epithelium makes up the dermis?

1. Loose CT2. Dense irregular collagenous CT

4

What layer of skin is injured in superficial burns?

Epidermis

5

What are the nonkeratinocytes?

1. Langerhans cells2. Merkel cells3. Melanocytes

6

What is the primary function of Langerhans cells?

Defense

7

What is the precursor of Langerhans cells?

Bone marrow

8

Where are Langerhans cells mainly located?

Stratum spinosum

9

Which cell type is responsible for antigen presentation in the skin?

Langerhans cells

10

Birbeck granules are unique to what type of cell?

Langerhans cell

11

What is the main function of Merkel cells?

Mechanoreceptor

12

Where are Merkel cells mainly located?

Stratum basale (many in fingertips and base of hair follicles)

13

How are Merkel cells attaced to keratinocytes?

Desmosomes

14

The Merkel cell - neurite complex is responsible for what sensation?

Discriminative touch - picking up fine detailed sensory information such as shape and texture

15

What is the main function of melanocytes?

Protection from UV radiation

16

What is the precursor of melanocytes?

Neural crest

17

Bone marrow is the origin for what nonkeratinized cell of the epidermis?

Langerhans cells

18

Neural crest is the origin for what nonkeratinized cell of the epidermis?

Melanocytes

19

What pigment do melanocytes synthesize?

Melanin

20

Where are melanocytes mainly found?

Stratum basale and superficial dermis

21

What nonkeratinized cell type of the epidermis is found in the stratum basale and superficial dermis?

Melanocytes

22

What nonkeratinized cell type of the epidermis is found in the stratum spinosum?

Langerhans cells

23

What nonkeratinized cell type of the epidermis is found in the stratum basale?

Merkel cells

24

The cytoplasmic processes of melanocytes project into what layer of the epidermis?

Stratum spinosum

25

Where is tyrosinase synthesized?

rER

26

When is tyrosinase incorporated into melanosomes?

After Golgi processing

27

When and where is tyrosine converted to melanin?

In the melanosome, post-Golgi

28

What contributes to level of pigmentation in different races / people?

1. Tyrosinase activity2. Number of melanin granules3. Size of melanin granules4. Distribution of melanin5. Rate of melanin breakdown

29

From superficial to basal, what are the strata of THICK skin?

1. Stratum corneum2. Stratum lucidum3. Stratum granulosum4. Stratum spinosum5. Stratum basale (germinativum)

30

What is the general function of the stratum corneum?

Protection

31

What are characteristics of the stratum corneum?

1. Flattened, dessicated, keratinized, dead cells2. No nuclei or organelles3. Keratin filaments and amorphous matrix4. No desmosomes - desquamate

32

What is the general function of the stratum lucidum?

Protection

33

What are characteristics of the stratum lucidum?

1. Sublayer of stratum corneum2. Perceptible in thick skin3. No organelles of nuclei4. Keratin filaments

34

What is the general function of the stratum granulosum?

Waterproofing

35

What are characteristics of the stratum granulosum?

1. Nucleated - apoptotic nuclear morphology2. Keratohyalin granules3. Membrane-coated granules

36

In which layer of epidermis are membrane-coated granules found?

Stratum granulosum

37

In which layer of epidermis are keratohyalin granules found?

Stratum granulosum

38

What is contained within the membrane-coated granules of the stratum granulosum?

Lipid

39

What is the general function of the stratum spinosum?

Binding, protection

40

What are characteristics of the stratum spinosum?

1. Interdigitating processes (intercellular bridges)2. Bundles of intermediate filaments (tonofilaments - cytokeratin)3. Membrane-coating granules4. Mitosis in basal layer5. Langerhans cells

41

What is the general function of the stratum basale?

Cell renewal, anchor epidermis to basement membrane

42

What are characteristics of the stratum basale?

1. Single layer of cells2. Desmosomes laterally, hemidesmosomes basally3. Most intense mitotic activity

43

What are the strata of THIN skin?

1. Stratum corneum2. Stratum spinosum3. Stratum basale

44

What is the "glue" of the basement membrane holding the epidermis to the dermis?

Carbohydrates

45

What is the "anchor" of the basement membrane holding the epidermis to the dermis?

Collagen fibers

46

Which embryonic germ layer gives rise to the dermis?

Mesoderm

47

Structure and strength of the dermis is provided via what protein?

Collagen

48

What feature of the dermis - epidermis layer is responsible for fingerprints?

Dermal ridges

49

What are the layers of the dermis?

1. Papillary 2. Reticular

50

The papillary layer of the dermis contains what types of connective tissue fibers?

1. Type III collagen (reticular)2. Type VII collagen (fibrils to anchor dermis to epidermis)3. Some elastic fibers

51

Partial thickness burns involve what layer of skin?

Dermis

52

The reticular layer of the dermis contains what types of connective tissue fibers?

1. Type I collagen - regular orientation2. Thick elastic fibers

53

In which layer of the dermis are hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands found?

Reticular layer

54

What is the general function of eccrine glands?

Thermoregulation

55

Where are eccrine glands located?

Deep in dermis or hypodermis

56

What type of epithelium makes up the secretory segment of eccrine glands?

Simple cuboidal to low columnar (or pseudostratified)

57

What type of epithelium makes up the duct segment of eccrine glands?

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

58

Where are apocrine glands located?

Deep dermis and hypodermis of axilla, areola, anus, external auditory meatus, eyelids

59

Which glands have myoepithelial cells associated with them?

Eccrine glands

60

What is the secretory method for apocrine glands?

Merocrine

61

Where are sebaceous glands located?

Dermis and hypodermis throughout body, numerous in scalp and face

62

In sebaceous glands, where are the immature cells located?

Periphery

63

What is the secretory method for sebaceous glands?

Holocrine

64

What type of epithelium makes up the duct segment of sebaceous glands?

Stratified squamous epithelium

65

Where does nail growth take place?

Nail matrix (root)

66

Where are Merkel cells located?

Stratum basale of epidermis (non partying regions of the skin)