Respiratory system Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Cell Biology > Respiratory system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (51):
1

What gives rise to the primary (lobular) bronchioles?

Terminal bronchi

2

The terminal bronchi gives rise to which segment of bronchioles?

Primary (lobular) bronchioles

3

What provides respiratory supply to a secondary pulmonary lobule?

A primary (lobular) bronchiole and its terminal bronchiolar branches

4

What is supplied by a primary (lobular) bronchiole and its terminal bronchiolar branches?

Secondary pulmonary lobule

5

Where is anthracotic pigment found?

Outlines secondary pulmonary lobules

6

What provides respiratory supply to a pulmonary acinus?

Terminal bronchiole and its respiratory bronchiolar branches

7

What is supplied by the terminal bronchiole and its respiratory bronchiolar branches?

Pulmonary acinus

8

What supplies a respiratory bronchiolar unit (primary pulmonary lobule)?

Each respiratory bronchiole

9

What does each respiratory bronchiole supply?

Respiratory bronchiolar unit (primary pulmonary lobule)

10

What kind of epithelium makes up the olfactory epithelium?

Pseudostratified columnar

11

What underlies the basal lamina of the nasal mucosa?

Lamina propria

12

What are the cellular residents of the olfactory epithelium?

1. Olfactory receptor cells2. Sustentacular (supporting) cells3. Brush cells4. Basal cells

13

What are the characteristics of the olfactory receptor cells?

1. Bipolar neurons2. Single dendrites project toward apical surface of epithelium 3. Basal axon enters lamina propria to be sheathed by non-myelinating Schwann cells

14

What are the characteristics of the sustentacular cells?

1. Columnar with apical microvilli to form striated border2. Nourish and insulate olfactory cells 3. Contain lipofuscin granules

15

What are the characteristics of the brush cells?

1. Basal domain in synaptic contact with branches of CN V2. Apical domain - microvilli

16

What are the characteristics of the basal cells?

1. Short, pyramidal cells anchored to basal lamina but do not reach apical surface2. Regenerative stem cells - proliferate to mature into any of the other cell types

17

What is contained in the lamina propria layer of nasal mucosa?

1. Bowman's glands2. Unmyelinated nerve fibers and bundles3. Swell bodies

18

What is contained in Bowman's glands?

Serous product containing odorant-binding protein

19

What is the 'respiratory epithelium' of the larynx?

Ciliated, pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells

20

Where is the respiratory epithelium non-keratinized, stratified squamous?

1. Vocal folds2. Anterior surface of epiglottis3. Exterior laryngeal surfaces

21

The vocal folds, anterior surface of epiglottis, and exterior laryngeal surfaces are covered by what type of epithelium?

Non-keratinized, stratified squamous

22

What keeps the epithelium lining the vocal folds moist?

Secretions from the seromucous glands in the saccules

23

In which layer is the vocal ligament found?

Lamina propria

24

What is Reinke's space?

The part of the lamina propria lying between the basal lamina and the vocal ligament

25

The trachea and primary bronchus consist of what layers?

1. Mucosa2. Submucosa with glands3. Cartilage (and trachealis)4. Adventitia

26

Which respiratory segment walls contain mucosa, submucosa with glands, cartilage, and adventitia?

Trachea and primary bronchus

27

The intrapulmonary bronchi consist of what layers?

1. Mucosa2. Muscularis3. Submucosa with glands4. Cartilage5. Adventitia

28

Which respiratory segment walls contain mucosa, muscularis, submucosa with glands, cartilage, and adventitia?

Intrapulmonary bronchi

29

The bronchioles consist of what layers?

1. Mucosa2. Muscularis3. Fibroelastic CT

30

Which respiratory segment walls contain mucosa, muscularis, and fibroelastic CT?

Brochioles

31

What are the drivers of mucociliary clearance?

Ciliated columnar cells

32

Where are ciliated columar cells found?

Mucosa of trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi

33

Which cells of the trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi are most numerous in fetal lung, decrease substantially after birth, and proliferate in certain diseases of the pulmonary system?

Neuroendocrine cells of Kulchitsky

34

Where are seromucous glands found?

Submucosa of trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi

35

What is the role of seromucous glands?

Secreting mucins, bacteriostatic substances lactoferrin and lysozyme, IgA (via plasma cells), and protease inhibitors

36

What kind of remodeling occurs in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles during asthma?

1. Basal lamina becomes thicker2. Edema and inflammation; numerous leukocytes3. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of submucosal glands; goblet cells are more numerous4. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells

37

Where are club cells found?

Terminal and respiratory bronchioles

38

What is the function of club cells?

1. Secrete surfactant (different from that of type 2 alveolar cells)2. Produce CC16

39

What is the function of CC16 protein?

1. Anti-oxidant / anti-inflammatory molecule 2. Regulates chloride ion transport3. Divide to replace bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells

40

What happens to CC16 levels following bronchiolar damage?

Increased in blood and decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

41

Are glands present in the lamina propria of bronchioles?

No

42

Which layers are absent in bronchioles?

1. Submucosa2. Submucosal glands3. Cartilage

43

What are the characteristics of type I alveolar cells?

1. 40% of epithelial cell population but line 90% of alveolar surface2. Attenuated simple squamous for gas exchange3. Connected via tight junctions4. Not capable of cell division

44

What are the characteristics of type II alveolar cells?

1. More numerous that type I2. 60% of cell population but line

45

What are the characteristics of surfactant?

Continuously produced by type II alveolar cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis

46

What is an important inducer of surfactant synthesis?

Cortisol

47

What inhibits corticosteroids?

Insulin

48

Insulinemia in fetuses of diabetic mothers can lead to what condition?

Respiratory distress syndrome

49

What are the heart failure cells?

Alveolar macrophages

50

What is the interalveolar septum?

1. Space between adjacent alveolar epithelia2. Contains continuous capillaries, or in wider areas type III collage and elastic fibers

51

What makes up the blood-gas barrier?

1. Type I pneumocytes with adluminal surfactant2. Fused basal laminae of type I pneumocyte and continuous capillaries3. Endothelial cells of continuous capillaries