Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (51):
What gives rise to the primary (lobular) bronchioles?
The terminal bronchi gives rise to which segment of bronchioles?
Primary (lobular) bronchioles
What provides respiratory supply to a secondary pulmonary lobule?
A primary (lobular) bronchiole and its terminal bronchiolar branches
What is supplied by a primary (lobular) bronchiole and its terminal bronchiolar branches?
Secondary pulmonary lobule
Where is anthracotic pigment found?
Outlines secondary pulmonary lobules
What provides respiratory supply to a pulmonary acinus?
Terminal bronchiole and its respiratory bronchiolar branches
What is supplied by the terminal bronchiole and its respiratory bronchiolar branches?
What supplies a respiratory bronchiolar unit (primary pulmonary lobule)?
Each respiratory bronchiole
What does each respiratory bronchiole supply?
Respiratory bronchiolar unit (primary pulmonary lobule)
What kind of epithelium makes up the olfactory epithelium?
What underlies the basal lamina of the nasal mucosa?
What are the cellular residents of the olfactory epithelium?
1. Olfactory receptor cells2. Sustentacular (supporting) cells3. Brush cells4. Basal cells
What are the characteristics of the olfactory receptor cells?
1. Bipolar neurons2. Single dendrites project toward apical surface of epithelium 3. Basal axon enters lamina propria to be sheathed by non-myelinating Schwann cells
What are the characteristics of the sustentacular cells?
1. Columnar with apical microvilli to form striated border2. Nourish and insulate olfactory cells 3. Contain lipofuscin granules
What are the characteristics of the brush cells?
1. Basal domain in synaptic contact with branches of CN V2. Apical domain - microvilli
What are the characteristics of the basal cells?
1. Short, pyramidal cells anchored to basal lamina but do not reach apical surface2. Regenerative stem cells - proliferate to mature into any of the other cell types
What is contained in the lamina propria layer of nasal mucosa?
1. Bowman's glands2. Unmyelinated nerve fibers and bundles3. Swell bodies
What is contained in Bowman's glands?
Serous product containing odorant-binding protein
What is the 'respiratory epithelium' of the larynx?
Ciliated, pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells
Where is the respiratory epithelium non-keratinized, stratified squamous?
1. Vocal folds2. Anterior surface of epiglottis3. Exterior laryngeal surfaces
The vocal folds, anterior surface of epiglottis, and exterior laryngeal surfaces are covered by what type of epithelium?
Non-keratinized, stratified squamous
What keeps the epithelium lining the vocal folds moist?
Secretions from the seromucous glands in the saccules
In which layer is the vocal ligament found?
What is Reinke's space?
The part of the lamina propria lying between the basal lamina and the vocal ligament
The trachea and primary bronchus consist of what layers?
1. Mucosa2. Submucosa with glands3. Cartilage (and trachealis)4. Adventitia
Which respiratory segment walls contain mucosa, submucosa with glands, cartilage, and adventitia?
Trachea and primary bronchus
The intrapulmonary bronchi consist of what layers?
1. Mucosa2. Muscularis3. Submucosa with glands4. Cartilage5. Adventitia
Which respiratory segment walls contain mucosa, muscularis, submucosa with glands, cartilage, and adventitia?
The bronchioles consist of what layers?
1. Mucosa2. Muscularis3. Fibroelastic CT
Which respiratory segment walls contain mucosa, muscularis, and fibroelastic CT?
What are the drivers of mucociliary clearance?
Ciliated columnar cells
Where are ciliated columar cells found?
Mucosa of trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi
Which cells of the trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi are most numerous in fetal lung, decrease substantially after birth, and proliferate in certain diseases of the pulmonary system?
Neuroendocrine cells of Kulchitsky
Where are seromucous glands found?
Submucosa of trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi
What is the role of seromucous glands?
Secreting mucins, bacteriostatic substances lactoferrin and lysozyme, IgA (via plasma cells), and protease inhibitors
What kind of remodeling occurs in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles during asthma?
1. Basal lamina becomes thicker2. Edema and inflammation; numerous leukocytes3. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of submucosal glands; goblet cells are more numerous4. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells
Where are club cells found?
Terminal and respiratory bronchioles
What is the function of club cells?
1. Secrete surfactant (different from that of type 2 alveolar cells)2. Produce CC16
What is the function of CC16 protein?
1. Anti-oxidant / anti-inflammatory molecule 2. Regulates chloride ion transport3. Divide to replace bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells
What happens to CC16 levels following bronchiolar damage?
Increased in blood and decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
Are glands present in the lamina propria of bronchioles?
Which layers are absent in bronchioles?
1. Submucosa2. Submucosal glands3. Cartilage
What are the characteristics of type I alveolar cells?
1. 40% of epithelial cell population but line 90% of alveolar surface2. Attenuated simple squamous for gas exchange3. Connected via tight junctions4. Not capable of cell division
What are the characteristics of type II alveolar cells?
1. More numerous that type I2. 60% of cell population but line
What are the characteristics of surfactant?
Continuously produced by type II alveolar cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis
What is an important inducer of surfactant synthesis?
What inhibits corticosteroids?
Insulinemia in fetuses of diabetic mothers can lead to what condition?
Respiratory distress syndrome
What are the heart failure cells?
What is the interalveolar septum?
1. Space between adjacent alveolar epithelia2. Contains continuous capillaries, or in wider areas type III collage and elastic fibers