Flashcards in Female reproductive system Deck (53):
The spike of what hormone stimulates ovulation?
LH spike at midcycle
What becomes of the granulosa cells that remain embedded in the ovarian cortex following ovulation?
Form corpus luteum
What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization does not occur?
1. Continues to produce estrogen and PG for about 14 days to maintain endometrial lining2. Degenerates to become corpus albicans, resulting in drop in estrogen and PG levels, causing endometrium to shed
What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization does occur?
1. Persists beyond second half of menstrual cycle; maintained by hCG released by syncytiotrophoblast of chorion2. Continues to produce estrogen and PG to maintain endometrium
What are the microscopic features of the ovary?
1. Germinal epithelium2. Tunica albuginea3. Cortical region4. Medullary region
What is the result of oogenesis?
One mature ovum and three polar bodies
When does meiosis I occur during oogenesis?
Prenatally, at what stage does meiosis I arrest?
When is a primordial germ cell referred to as a primary oocyte?
Once it enters meiosis I
What type of cell is found within primordial follicles in the newborn ovarian cortex?
Primary oocytes; suspended in prophase I
When does meiosis I resume in a primary oocyte?
Prior to ovulation (completes meiosis I)
What is the term for the cell at the end of meiosis I?
Is there interphase prior to onset of meiosis II?
Where does meiosis II arrest?
When the secondary oocyte is released at ovulation, in which phase is it?
When will the secondary oocyte complete meiosis II to become a mature ovum?
Only if fertilized
When does follicle development begin?
What comprises an ovarian follicle?
1. Oocyte2. Epithelial follicular cells or epithelial granulosa cells
Which follicles contain a primary oocyte in prophase I?
1. Primordial2. Growing (primary, unilaminar, multilaminar, secondary)
Which follicles contain a secondary oocyte in metaphase II?
What are features of the primordial follicle?
1. Has primary oocyte in prophase I2. Simple squamous follicle cells with desmosomes3. Basal lamina4. Formed prenatally5. Dormant, most immature follicle6. Present in ovary at birth and until menopause
Where does maturation of the oocyte take place?
What are features of the primary follicle?
1. Unilaminar2. Has primary oocyte in prophase I3. Produce activin - stimulares stratification of follicle cells4. Has zona pellucida5. Simple cuboidal follicle cells6. Basal lamina
What are features of the late primary follicle?
1. Multilaminar2. Has primary oocyte in prophase I3. Has zona pellucida4. Formation of stratified granulosa cells is avascular5. Granulosa cells have filopodia (oocyte has microvilli)6. Theca folliculli - encapsulates follicle
What are features of the secondary (antral) follicle?
1. Has primary oocyte in prophase I2. Has zona pellucida3. Stratified granulosa cells secrete liquor folliculi4. Multiple fluid filled antral cavities form5. Theca interna and externa
What are features of the mature (Graafian) follicle?
1. Contains primary oocyte in prophase I which progresses to secondary oocyte in metaphase II just prior to ovulation2. Has corona radiata - single layer or granulosa cells 3. Has antrum
What is the cumulus oophorus?
1. Mound of granulosa cells containing the oocyte2. Found in mature follicle
When does ovulation occur?
1. Around day 14 of 28 day menstrual cycle2. In response to LH spike and FSH, released by basophils of anterior pituitary
What is the follicular stigma?
Clear pale spot formed on the ovary over the follicle during ovulation in response to lack of blood flow
What is the corpus luteum of menstruation?
Granulosa cells and thecal cells left in the ovarian cortex if fertilization does NOT occur
What is the corpus luteum of pregnancy?
Granulosa cells and thecal cells left in the ovarian cortex if fertilization does occur
What do the granulosa cells differentiate into?
Granulosa lutein cells
What do the theca interna cells differentiate into?
Theca lutein cells
What is the cause of polycystic ovarian disease?
Thickened tunica albuginea covering the ovaries results in many fluid filled follicular cysts and atrophic secondary follicles that remain embedded in ovary
What hormone is not produced in polycystic ovarian disease?
Progesterone (granulosa cells of Graafian follicle do not transform into corpus luteum to make PG)
What is the function of the zona pellucida during fertilization of the secondary oocyte?
ZP3 serves as spermatozoa binding receptor to induce acrosome reaction
What is necessary for sperm to perforate the barriers that encapsulate the oocyte, preventing fertilization?
Combination of hyaluronidases and sperm hyperactivation
What are the nonciliated peg cells of the uterine tube?
Produce nutrient-rich protective secretions for oocyte, sperm, or zygote
What are the layers of the uterus?
1. Endometrium2. Myometrium3. Perimetrium
What are the features of the endometrial epithelium?
1. Simple columnar2. Ciliated cells3. Nonciliated secretory cells - secrete glycoproteins
What are the features of the endometrial lamina propria?
1. Aka stroma2. Simple branched tubular glands, fibroblasts, dense irregular CT 3. Contains functional layer (aka decidua in pregnant female)4. Contains stratum basale for regeneration5. Blood vessels - arcuate, radial (spiral for functional, straight for basal)
What are the functions of the myometrium?
Undergoes hypertrophy and hyperplasty during pregnancy
What are the features of the perimetrium?
Consists of either serosa (mesothelium and loose CT) or adventitia (CT attaching to surrounding structures)
What type of epithelium makes up the lining of the cervix?
Simple columnar, mucous secreting
What type of epithelium makes up the vaginal part of the cervix?
Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
What are the phases of the menstrual cycle?
1. Menstrual 2. Proliferative 3. Secretory
What are features of the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle?
No fertilization:1. PG and estrogen levels decrease2. Blood flow to functional layer decreases, functional layer becomes ischemic, blood flow to endometrial lining ceases3. Necrosis of functional layer
What are features of the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle?
1. Uterine mucosa = lamina propria with basal portions of glands2. Estrogen stimulates proliferation of epithelium, glands, vessels3. Spiral arteries grow into regenerating endometrial stroma
What are features of the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?
1. Starts after ovulation 2. PG stimulates glands, which become coiled3. Spiral arteries grow into functional layer of endometrium
What are uterine leiomyomas?
1. Fibroids - benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin2. Well circumscribed, vary in size, whorled appearance3. Usually embedded in myometrium
What type of epithelium makes up the vagina?
Stratified squamous nonkeratinized
What is contained in the lamina propria of the vaginal mucosa?
Abundant elastic fibers