Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Cell Biology > Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (43):
1

Fibroma

Benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT

2

Chondroma

Benign growth of hyaline cartilage

3

Adenoma

1. Epithelial cell benign tumor2. Epithelial cells from a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue

4

Hemangioma

Benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels

5

Lymphoma

Benign tumor of lymphoid tissue

6

Papilloma

Benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane (mucosa) possessing finger-like projections

7

Polyp

Benign protrusion from a mucous membrane (mucosa)

8

Benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT

Fibroma

9

Benign growth of hyaline cartilage

Chondroma

10

1. Epithelial cell benign tumor2. Epithelial cells from a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue

Adenoma

11

Benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels

Hemangioma

12

Benign tumor of lymphoid tissue

Lymphoma

13

Benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane (mucosa) possessing finger-like projections

Papilloma

14

Benign protrusion from a mucous membrane (mucosa)

Polyp

15

Sarcoma

Malignant tumors derived from derivatives of mesenchymal CT

16

Carcinoma

Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells

17

What is an example of a mixed tumor?

1. Pleomorphic tumor of parotid gland2. Epithelial cells form ducts3. CT stroma

18

What is the cause of a mixed tumor?

When a clonal tumor cell divides into two divergent pathways

19

What is a teratoma?

1. Tumor derived from more than one germ layer2. May be benign or malignant

20

Anaplasia

A state where tumor cells lack differentiation

21

Pleomorphism

Cells and nuclei are variable in size and shape

22

What are the characteristics of anaplasia?

1. Pleomorphism2. Abnormal nuclear structure3. Mitoses4. Loss of polarity

23

What characterizes abnormal nuclear structure?

1. Nuclei contain abundance of DNA 2. Hyperchromatic nuclei3. Large nuclei4. Large nucleoli

24

What is loss of polarity?

Cells lose normal organization

25

What are the main pathways of spread?

1. Direct seeding of cavities or surfaces2. Lymphatic spread3. Hematogenous4. Perineural invasion and spread

26

What characterizes perineural invasion and spread?

1. Cancer cells invade and spread in the CT space around a nerve2. Common in head / neck, prostate, and pancreas cancers3. Aggressive behavior usually correlating with a poorer prognosis4. Painful

27

What are the top three cancers by site and gender based on incidence?

1. Prostate / breast2. Lung3. Colorectal

28

What are the top three cancers by site and gender based on mortality?

1. Lung2. Prostate / breast3. Colorectal

29

In 70% of prostate cancer cases where does the adenocarcinoma arise?

Peripheral zone, usually posteriorly

30

What are markers for prostate cancer?

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate serum acid phosphatase (PSAP)

31

What is the molecular pathogenesis of prostate cancer?

1. Cancer suppressor genes lose early in carcinogenesis2. p53 mutations occur late 3. Loss of cadherins4. Spread to vertebral column

32

Where are 50% of breast cancers found?

Upper lateral quadrant

33

Most types of breast cancer are of what type?

Adenocarcinomas

34

How are breast cancers categorized?

1. Carcinoma in situ2. Invasive carcinoma

35

Where do 75% of lung cancers originate?

Priamry, secondary, or tertiary bronchi

36

What are the main categories of lunch cancer?

1. Squamous cell carcinoma 2. Adenocarcinoma3. Small cell carcinoma4. Large cell carcinoma

37

What are the features of squamous cell carcinoma lung cancer?

1. Keratin pearl2. More common in men3. Strong relationship to smoking

38

What are the features of adenocarcinoma lung cancer?

1. Glandular profiles (epithelial cells in lumen)2. More frequent in women3. More frequent in nonsmokers

39

What are features of small cell carcinoma lung cancer?

1. Most malignant2. Strong relationship to smoking

40

What are features of large cell carcinoma lung cancer?

Undifferentiated

41

Which type of colorectal cancer is most malignant?

Sessile villous

42

Which side has the higher colon cancer rate?

Left

43

What are the stages of colorectal cancer?

T1s - still within mucosaT1 - penetration into submucosaT2 - deeper penetration into muscularis externaT3 - full penetration into muscularis externa