Peripheral blood Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Cell Biology > Peripheral blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Peripheral blood Deck (43):
1

What is serum?

Plasma minus the fibrinogen

2

What imparts the yellow color to plasma?

Bilirubin

3

Loss of albumin leads to what condition?

Edema

4

Gamma globulins are synthesized by what cell?

Plasma cell

5

What are the clotting factors?

1. Prothrombin2. Fibrinogen3. Accelerator globulin (Factor VII)

6

What is polycythemia?

Elevated RBC levels

7

What are the major transmembrane proteins in RBCs?

Glycophorin and Band 3

8

What is the function of the Band 3 RBC transmembrane protein?

Transports HCO3- and Cl- across plasma membrane in order to increase the amount of CO2 in the blood

9

Band 4.1 is associated with what components of the RBC plasma membrane scaffold?

1. Glycophorin2. Actin3. Spectrin

10

Band 4.2 is associated with what components of the RBC plasma membrane scaffold?

1. Band 32. Ankyrin3. Spectrin

11

What protein promotes actin-spectrin association?

Adducin

12

What is the function of adducin?

Promotes actin-spectrin association

13

A mutation in band 3, ankyrin, spectrin, or band 4.2 lead to what condition?

Hereditary spherocytosis - spherical RBCs

14

A mutations in glycophorin, spectrin, or protein 4.1 lead to what condition?

Elliptocytosis - elliptical RBCs

15

Hereditary spherocytosis results from a mutation in any of which proteins?

Band 3, ankyrin, spectrin, band 4.2

16

Elliptocytosis results from a mutation in any of which proteins?

Glycophorin, spectrin, protein 4.1

17

What antigens are responsible for the malaria toxin?

Duffy system antigens

18

What are Howell-Jolly bodies?

Small basophilic nuclear fragments in the cytoplasm of RBCs

19

Howell-Jolly bodies are seen in which conditions?

1. Severe hemolytic anemia2. Dysfunctional spleens3. Post-splenectomy

20

Which RBC inclusions are seen in severe hemolytic anemia, dysfunctional spleens, and following a splenectomy?

Howell-Jolly bodies

21

What are Heinz bodies?

Inclusions of damaged Hb

22

How are bite cells formed?

Macrophages take a chunk out of an RBC that has a Heinz body in it

23

What is the immediate precursor to the RBC?

Reticulocyte

24

What is indicated by an increase in reticulocyte values?

Body has an increased demand for oxygen that is not being met (e.g. hemorrhage, altitude)

25

Which granulocyte is associated with bacterial infections?

Neutrophil

26

What is the immediate precursor to neutrophils?

Band cell

27

What is indicated by a left shift with respect to band cells / neutrophils?

Acute bacterial infection

28

What are represented by azurophilic granules?

Lysosomes

29

What is the function of the enzymes located in tertiary granules?

Degradation of ECM and basal lamina to facilitate neutrophil migration into tissue

30

What is a Dohle body?

Represents dilated rER - seen in infections and some other conditions

31

What is the nuclear appearance of eosinophils?

Bilobular

32

Eosinophils are specialized at destroying what type of insult?

Parasitic infection

33

What is the nuclear appearance of basophils?

S-shaped, obscured by dark stained basophilic cytoplasm

34

Which enzymes are contained within the specific granules of basophils?

Histamine, heparin, eosinophilic and chemotaxic factor, neutrophilic chemotaxic factor, peroxidase

35

Do agranulocytes contain azurophilic granules?

Yes

36

What are the agranulocytes?

1. Lymphocytes2. Monocytes

37

What are the cellular characteristics of lymphocytes?

1. Small - roughly same size as RBCs2. Narrow rim of basophilic cytoplasm with numerous ribosomes3. Prominent nucleus

38

What are the cellular characteristics of monocytes?

1. Large2. Large kidney shaped nucleus3. Blue-gray cytoplasm4. Numerous azurophilic granules5. Migrate into tissues to become macrophages

39

What are the four zones of platelets?

1. Peripheral2. Structural3. Membrane4. Organelle

40

What constitutes the peripheral zone of RBCs?

Plasma membrane and glycocalyx

41

What constitutes the structural zone of RBCs?

Microtubules, actin, and myosin monomers (maintains shape)

42

What constitutes the membrane zone of RBCs?

Open canalicular system and dense tubular system

43

What constitutes the organelle zone of RBCs?

1. Mitochondria2. Glycogen granules3. Peroxisomes4. Three granule types - lambda, alpha, delta (lysosomes)