Flashcards in Peripheral blood Deck (43):
What is serum?
Plasma minus the fibrinogen
What imparts the yellow color to plasma?
Loss of albumin leads to what condition?
Gamma globulins are synthesized by what cell?
What are the clotting factors?
1. Prothrombin2. Fibrinogen3. Accelerator globulin (Factor VII)
What is polycythemia?
Elevated RBC levels
What are the major transmembrane proteins in RBCs?
Glycophorin and Band 3
What is the function of the Band 3 RBC transmembrane protein?
Transports HCO3- and Cl- across plasma membrane in order to increase the amount of CO2 in the blood
Band 4.1 is associated with what components of the RBC plasma membrane scaffold?
1. Glycophorin2. Actin3. Spectrin
Band 4.2 is associated with what components of the RBC plasma membrane scaffold?
1. Band 32. Ankyrin3. Spectrin
What protein promotes actin-spectrin association?
What is the function of adducin?
Promotes actin-spectrin association
A mutation in band 3, ankyrin, spectrin, or band 4.2 lead to what condition?
Hereditary spherocytosis - spherical RBCs
A mutations in glycophorin, spectrin, or protein 4.1 lead to what condition?
Elliptocytosis - elliptical RBCs
Hereditary spherocytosis results from a mutation in any of which proteins?
Band 3, ankyrin, spectrin, band 4.2
Elliptocytosis results from a mutation in any of which proteins?
Glycophorin, spectrin, protein 4.1
What antigens are responsible for the malaria toxin?
Duffy system antigens
What are Howell-Jolly bodies?
Small basophilic nuclear fragments in the cytoplasm of RBCs
Howell-Jolly bodies are seen in which conditions?
1. Severe hemolytic anemia2. Dysfunctional spleens3. Post-splenectomy
Which RBC inclusions are seen in severe hemolytic anemia, dysfunctional spleens, and following a splenectomy?
What are Heinz bodies?
Inclusions of damaged Hb
How are bite cells formed?
Macrophages take a chunk out of an RBC that has a Heinz body in it
What is the immediate precursor to the RBC?
What is indicated by an increase in reticulocyte values?
Body has an increased demand for oxygen that is not being met (e.g. hemorrhage, altitude)
Which granulocyte is associated with bacterial infections?
What is the immediate precursor to neutrophils?
What is indicated by a left shift with respect to band cells / neutrophils?
Acute bacterial infection
What are represented by azurophilic granules?
What is the function of the enzymes located in tertiary granules?
Degradation of ECM and basal lamina to facilitate neutrophil migration into tissue
What is a Dohle body?
Represents dilated rER - seen in infections and some other conditions
What is the nuclear appearance of eosinophils?
Eosinophils are specialized at destroying what type of insult?
What is the nuclear appearance of basophils?
S-shaped, obscured by dark stained basophilic cytoplasm
Which enzymes are contained within the specific granules of basophils?
Histamine, heparin, eosinophilic and chemotaxic factor, neutrophilic chemotaxic factor, peroxidase
Do agranulocytes contain azurophilic granules?
What are the agranulocytes?
1. Lymphocytes2. Monocytes
What are the cellular characteristics of lymphocytes?
1. Small - roughly same size as RBCs2. Narrow rim of basophilic cytoplasm with numerous ribosomes3. Prominent nucleus
What are the cellular characteristics of monocytes?
1. Large2. Large kidney shaped nucleus3. Blue-gray cytoplasm4. Numerous azurophilic granules5. Migrate into tissues to become macrophages
What are the four zones of platelets?
1. Peripheral2. Structural3. Membrane4. Organelle
What constitutes the peripheral zone of RBCs?
Plasma membrane and glycocalyx
What constitutes the structural zone of RBCs?
Microtubules, actin, and myosin monomers (maintains shape)
What constitutes the membrane zone of RBCs?
Open canalicular system and dense tubular system