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Year 1 Cell Biology > Eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eye Deck (50):
1

What makes up the fibrous layer of the eye?

1. Cornea2. Sclera

2

The cornea and sclera make up what layer of the eye?

Fibrous

3

What makes up the vascular layer of the eye?

1. Choroid2. Ciliary body3. Iris

4

The choroid, ciliary body, and iris make up what layer of the eye?

Vascular

5

What makes up the retinal layer of the eye?

1. Neural layer2. Retinal pigment epithelium

6

What are the contents of the posterior chamber?

1. Aqueous humor2. Iris3. Ciliary body and muscle4. Lens5. Cornea6. Anterior sclera

7

What are the contents of the vitreous chamber?

1. Vitreous humor2. Visual retina3. Retinal pigment epithelium4. Posterior sclera5. Uvea

8

What are the five layers of the cornea?

1. Corneal epithelium (most external)2. Bowman's membrane3. Corneal stroma4. Descemet's membrane5. Corneal endothelium

9

What type of cell makes up the corneal epithelium?

Stratified squamous non-keratinized with apical microvilli

10

What protein protects the corneal epithelium from UV damage?

Ferritin

11

What are some functions of Bowman's membrane?

1. Contributes to strength and stability of cornea2. Acts as barrier to prevent spread of infections

12

What are some characteristics of the corneal stroma?

1. 90% of cornea's thickness2. Collagen fibrils arranged in lamellae (transparency)3. Proteoglycans and collagen V allow proper spacing of collagen fibrils

13

What are some characteristics of Descemet's membrane?

1. Regenerates after injury2. Thickens with age3. Interwoven meshwork of fibers and pores4. Helps maintain curvature of cornea

14

What are some characteristics of the corneal endothelium?

1. Faces anterior chamber - has zonula occludens, adherens, and desmosomes2. Simple squamous epithelium3. Responsible for virtually all metabolic exchanges of cornea - nutrition via diffusion

15

1. Contributes to strength and stability of cornea2. Acts as barrier to prevent spread of infections

Bowman's membrane

16

1. 90% of cornea's thickness2. Collagen fibrils arranged in lamellae (transparency)3. Proteoglycans and collagen V allow proper spacing of collagen fibrils

Corneal stroma

17

1. Regenerates after injury2. Thickens with age3. Interwoven meshwork of fibers and pores4. Helps maintain curvature of cornea

Descemet's membrane

18

1. Faces anterior chamber2. Simple squamous epithelium3. Responsible for virtually all metabolic exchanges of cornea

Corneal endothelium

19

What is Tenon's capsule?

Fascial sheath over the surface of the sclera where extraocular muscles insert

20

Fascial sheath over the surface of the sclera where extraocular muscles insert

Tenon's capsule

21

What is the corneoscleral limbus?

1. Location of stem cells for corneal epithelium2. Location of iridocorneal angle

22

1. Location of stem cells for corneal epithelium2. Location of iridocorneal angle

Corneoscleral limbus

23

What is the iridocorneal angle?

1. Trabecular meshwork2. Formation of Canal of Schlemm (scleral venous sinus)3. Apparatus for the outflow of aqueous humor

24

1. Trabecular meshwork2. Formation of Canal of Schlemm (scleral venous sinus)3. Apparatus for the outflow of aqueous humor

Iridocorneal angle

25

What is the ora serrata?

Area that defines anterior limit of retina and choroid and the posterior limit of the ciliary body

26

Area that defines anterior limit of retina and choroid and the posterior limit of the ciliary body

Ora serrata

27

What are the functions of the ciliary processes?

1. Secretion of anchoring zonule fibers2. Produce aqueous humor3. Blood-aqueous barrier

28

What is the flow of aqueous humor?

Posterior chamber --> pupil --> anterior chamber --> trabecular meshwork --> Canal of Schlemm --> venous system

29

What is the function of ciliary muscle?

Reduce tension on lens for near vision

30

What is Bruch's membrane (lamina vitrea)?

Thin, amorphous hyaline membrane that forms the innermost layer of the choroid

31

What is contained in the fovea centralis?

Only cone photoreceptor cells - area of highest visual acuity

32

What is the retinal pigment epithelium?

Attaches via Bruch's membrane to the choriocapillary layer of the choroid (site of dislocated retina)

33

What are the four groups of cells found in the retina?

1. Photoreceptors2. Conducting neurons3. Association and other neurons4. Supporting (neuroglial) cells

34

What is the function of the RPE?

1. Absorb light2. Blood-retina layer3. Metabolic processes4. Phagocytosis of membranous discs from rods and cone

35

Iodopsin is sensitive to what colors?

Red, green, blue

36

What is the main blood supply to the retina?

Central retinal artery from ophthalmic artery

37

What are the three parts of the lens?

1. Capsule2. Subcapsular epithelium3. Lens fibers

38

Conjunctiva is made up of what type of epithelium?

Stratified columnar with goblet cells and basal lamina overlying a loose CT

39

Can Bowman's membrane regenerate?

No

40

What is the precise location for stem cells of the corneal epithelium?

Corneoscleral limbus

41

What is the dilator pupillae's arrangement of fibers with respect to the iris?

Radially arranaged

42

What is the sphincter pupillae's arrangement of fibers with respect to the iris?

Circularly arranged

43

How is the dilator pupillae innervated?

Sympathetic nervous system

44

How is the sphincter pupillae innervated?

Parasympathetic nervous system

45

What imparts pigment to the iris?

Anterior and posterior pigment epithelium

46

What causes open angle glaucoma?

Blockage of trabecular meshwork, slowing drainage of aqueous humor

47

What causes closed angle glaucoma?

Iridocorneal junction narrows / pinches off

48

Which is more emergent - open angle or closed angle glaucoma?

Closed

49

What is the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy?

Fragility of blood vessels - leads to retinal bleeding, edema, neovascularization of retina and iris

50

What is a common early sign of age related macular degeneration?

Drusen