EXAM #1: MICROCYTIC ANEMIA Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #1: MICROCYTIC ANEMIA > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #1: MICROCYTIC ANEMIA Deck (63):
1

What is the most important point to remember about anemia?

Anemia is NOT a concluding diagnosis; it is a manifestation of disease

2

What is the definition of anemia?

Decreased RBC resulting in decreased oxygen carrying capacity

3

What are the common symptoms of anemia?

- Fatigue
- Dyspnea
- Weakness

4

What is the normal MCV of RBCs?

80-100 fL

5

What is the definition of microcytic anemia?

Less than 80 fl MCV

6

What is the rule of thumb for determining the size of a RBC on PBS?

- Lymphocyte nucleus
- Central pallor is roughly 1/3 of the RBC width

7

What are the hallmark features of microcytosis on PBS?

- Microcytic
- Hypochromic

8

What is a normal Hb for men?

14-17 g/dL

9

What is a normal Hb for women?

12-15 g/dL

10

What is a normal Hct in men?

42-50%

11

What is a normal Hct in women?

36-44%

12

What is the normal MCH?

Mean Corpusucular Hb

30-34pg

13

What is the normal MCHC?

Mean Corpusucular Hb Concentration

30-36%

14

What is the normal RDW?

Red Cell Distribution Width

13-15%

*****Note that the smaller the RDW, the more UNIFORM the size*****

15

What are the three causes of iron deficiency?

1) Inadequate absorption
2) Inadequate utilization
3) Excessive loss******

*****This is the most common cause

16

How much iron can be absorbed per day?

1-3mg

17

Where in the body is iron absorbed?

First and second parts of the duodenum

18

What is the difference between ferrous and ferric iron?

Fe++= ferrous
Fe+++= ferric

19

What form of iron is most efficiently absorbed?

Heme iron

20

Are plants a good source of iron?

NO

- Low in iron to begin with
- Most is Fe+++

21

What transporter is important for the absorption of Fe++?

DMT-1

Divalent Metal Transporter

22

What happens to Fe++ once it is absorbed into the enterocyte?

Binds ferretin

23

How does iron/ferretin leave the enterocyte?

Ferroportin transporter

24

How is iron transported in the blood?

Plasma transferrin i.e. carrier protein

25

What blocks the ferroportin transporter?

Hepcidin (made in the liver)

26

What is the iron cycle?

1) Iron enters the gut and into the circulation
2) Transferrin transports iron in the blood to the bone marrow
3) Bone marrow to makes RBCs
4) Old RBCs are recycled in the spleen and iron is stored
5) Iron is released back into the blood to repeat the cycle

27

What upregulates hepcidin?

IL-6
High circulating ferretin

28

What downregulates hepcidin?

Low ferretin
Hypoxia

29

What organ produces EPO? What is the function of EPO?

- Kidneys (renal fibroblasts)
- EPO stimulates erythropoiesis

30

How much iron is circulating in the RBCs?

2,500mg

31

How much iron is in iron-containing proteins?

400mg

32

How much iron is transferrin-bound?

3-7mg

33

How much iron is stored?

1,000mg

34

Is iron excreted from the body? How is iron lost?

NO

- Most in insensible
- Vascular loss
1) External/traumatic
2) Sequetration/ hematoma
3) Menstrual
4) Internal loss (GI)

35

What is the defining laboratory characteristics of iron deficiency anemia?

- Low Hb/ Hct
- Small MCV
- Low ferretin (10 or less)*****
- Low transferrin SATURATION
- TIBC high
- Reticulocytes

36

What is the most specific lab value for iron deficiency anemia?

Low ferritin, less than 10

37

What is a normal Serum Fe?

60-150 mcg/dL

38

What is a normal TBIC?

300-360 mcg/dL

39

What is a normal iron saturation?

20-50%

40

What is a normal ferritin?

40-200 mcg/L

41

What is the diagnosis for the underlying cause of anemia in a 50 y/o (or older)?

GI malignancy until proven otherwise

42

What are the signs of iron deficiency?

Pica
Koilonychia
Pale palmar crease
Pale conjunctiva
Glossitis

43

How is iron deficiency anemia treat?

1) Find bleeding
2) Stop bleeding
3) Replace blood
- Fluids
- Blood
- Iron supplement

44

How is iron supplemented?

PO- max 25mg per day
IV- 500 mg

*****IM is NOT recommended b/c of side effects*****

45

What is the antibacterial effect of Hepcidin?

Limits Fe-dependent electron transport in bacteria

46

What are the cytokines that will stimulate the production of hepcidin?

IL-6
TNF
IF-a
IF-g

47

What is Rouleaux formation characteristic of?

ACD--autoimmune induced e.g. RA

48

What are the characteristics of Anemia of Renal Disease?

Normochromic b/c is is caused by a lack of EPO

49

How many hb-alpha alleles are on each chromosome? What chromosome?

Chromosome 16
- 4

50

How many beta alleles are on each chromosome? What chromosome?

Chromosome 11
- 1

51

How are Thalassemias named?

1) Gene that is deficient
2) null or += all genes or not

52

What is Hb-H and Hb-barts?

Both are tetramers WITHOUT alpha globin

H= Beta4
Barts= Gamma4

53

List the a-thalassemias.

1) aa/aa= normal= Asx.
2) -a/aa= silent carrier= Asx.
3) -a/-a= thalassemia trait= mild
4) --/-a= Hb-H disease= severe
5) --/--= "fetal hydrops"= lethal

Fetal hydrops is INCOMTATABLE WITH LIFE

54

Differentiate the ppt examples of alpha-Thalassemia.

N/A

55

List the B-thalassemias.

1) B+= trait/ minor= mild
2) B0= major= severe and transfusion dependent

Intermedia= 2x defective genes BUT partially functioning

56

Outline the pathophysiology of B-Thalassemia.

1) Increased RBC destruction
2) Fe overload in the spleen, marrow, and liver
3) Anemia and hypermetabolic marrow result, BUT the patient is iron overloaded from the destruction of misshaped RBCs

Requires a balance between phlebotomy and transfusion.

57

Outline the phenotypic characteristics of Beta-Thalassemia.

- Large forehead
- Distended abdomen with slenomegaly and heptaomegaly
- Pale

58

Differentiate ppt examples of Beta-thalassemia.

N/A

59

What is sideroblastic anemia?

Anemia with ringed siderblasts i.e. rings of iron around the nucleus

60

Identify ppt. examples of sideroblastic anemia.

N/A

61

What is the enzyme defieincy of hereditary sideroblastic anemia?

ALA Synthase

62

What are the causes of acquired Sideroblastic Anemia?

1) Myelodyplastic Syndrome
2) Alcohol
3) Drug induced
4) Lead poisoning
5) Cooper deficiency

63

What is a Pappenheimer Body?

Abnormal granules of iron found inside red blood cells on routine blood stain