EXAM #1: MICROCYTIC ANEMIA Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #1: MICROCYTIC ANEMIA > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #1: MICROCYTIC ANEMIA Deck (63)
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1

What is the most important point to remember about anemia?

Anemia is NOT a concluding diagnosis; it is a manifestation of disease

2

What is the definition of anemia?

Decreased RBC resulting in decreased oxygen carrying capacity

3

What are the common symptoms of anemia?

- Fatigue
- Dyspnea
- Weakness

4

What is the normal MCV of RBCs?

80-100 fL

5

What is the definition of microcytic anemia?

Less than 80 fl MCV

6

What is the rule of thumb for determining the size of a RBC on PBS?

- Lymphocyte nucleus
- Central pallor is roughly 1/3 of the RBC width

7

What are the hallmark features of microcytosis on PBS?

- Microcytic
- Hypochromic

8

What is a normal Hb for men?

14-17 g/dL

9

What is a normal Hb for women?

12-15 g/dL

10

What is a normal Hct in men?

42-50%

11

What is a normal Hct in women?

36-44%

12

What is the normal MCH?

Mean Corpusucular Hb

30-34pg

13

What is the normal MCHC?

Mean Corpusucular Hb Concentration

30-36%

14

What is the normal RDW?

Red Cell Distribution Width

13-15%

*****Note that the smaller the RDW, the more UNIFORM the size*****

15

What are the three causes of iron deficiency?

1) Inadequate absorption
2) Inadequate utilization
3) Excessive loss******

*****This is the most common cause

16

How much iron can be absorbed per day?

1-3mg

17

Where in the body is iron absorbed?

First and second parts of the duodenum

18

What is the difference between ferrous and ferric iron?

Fe++= ferrous
Fe+++= ferric

19

What form of iron is most efficiently absorbed?

Heme iron

20

Are plants a good source of iron?

NO

- Low in iron to begin with
- Most is Fe+++

21

What transporter is important for the absorption of Fe++?

DMT-1

Divalent Metal Transporter

22

What happens to Fe++ once it is absorbed into the enterocyte?

Binds ferretin

23

How does iron/ferretin leave the enterocyte?

Ferroportin transporter

24

How is iron transported in the blood?

Plasma transferrin i.e. carrier protein

25

What blocks the ferroportin transporter?

Hepcidin (made in the liver)

26

What is the iron cycle?

1) Iron enters the gut and into the circulation
2) Transferrin transports iron in the blood to the bone marrow
3) Bone marrow to makes RBCs
4) Old RBCs are recycled in the spleen and iron is stored
5) Iron is released back into the blood to repeat the cycle

27

What upregulates hepcidin?

IL-6
High circulating ferretin

28

What downregulates hepcidin?

Low ferretin
Hypoxia

29

What organ produces EPO? What is the function of EPO?

- Kidneys (renal fibroblasts)
- EPO stimulates erythropoiesis

30

How much iron is circulating in the RBCs?

2,500mg