Flashcards in EXAM #2: BLOOD GROUPS & COMPATIBILITY TESTING Deck (30)
In transfusion medicine, where are antigens?
These are proteins on the RBC
In transfusion medicine, where are antibodies located?
What classes make-up the majority of antibodies that we are concerned with in transfusion medicine?
IgG and IgM
What is the difference between an allo and an autoantibody?
What class of antibodies causes severe intravascular hemolysis?
What class of antibodies causes delayed extravascular hemolysis?
Which class of antibodies crosses the placenta?
What blood groups are the most important consideration in transfusion?
*****ABO mismatch causes intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction.
What is the Bombay phenotype?
Patients who lack the H-antigen, which is normally present on 99.9% of RBCs
What is group A antigen?
N-Acetyoglactosamine added to H antigen
What is group B antigen?
Galactosamine added to the H antigen
What is AB group antigen?
BOTH N-Acetylgalatosamine and Galactosamine
What is O antigen?
ONLY H antigen
If a patient gets an A gene from Mom, and an O gene from Dad, what is the phenotype?
When is the adult level of ABO antigen reached?
What class are the ABO antibodies?
What type of antibodies are generated against group O?
Anti-A and Anti-B
What type of antibodies are formed against AB?
What is the antigens in the Rh system that are of concern?
- "Big D"
What is the typical phenotype of a Caucasian in the Rh system?
What is the typical phenotype of Black patients in the Rh system?
What is the Rh negative phenotype?
What is Rh positive and negative referring to?
Presence or absence of D antigen
What class of antibodies is generated against Rh?
What is HDFN?
Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn
- Rh- Mom
- Rh+ baby x2
****In the second pregnancy there is an issue.*****
What is RhoGAM?
- Synthetic Anti-D is given to a Rh- mother
- Intent is for the Anti-D to attach to baby Rh factor and "conceal" them from the Mom's immune system
What are the two parts of blood typing?
*****Needs to be agreement on both of these to determine the blood type*****
What is the DAT looking for?
Antibody or complement attached to RBCs
- IgG class
****This is looking at the RBCs*****
What is the IAT looking for?
In vitro antibody sensitization