EXAM #3: CHILDHOOD CANCER II Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #3: CHILDHOOD CANCER II > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #3: CHILDHOOD CANCER II Deck (43):
1

What is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?

Hyperproliferation of lymphoid progenitor

2

What gender is ALL more common in?

Males

3

What are the signs and symptoms of Luekemia?

Constellation of symptoms associated with:
1) Anemia
2) Thrombocytopenia
3) Neutropenia

AND bone pain that causes a limp/decreased walking

4

What luekemia is gingival hypertrophy associated with?

Monoblastic leukemia

5

What are the CBC findings that are diagnostic for Leukemia?

1) Increased WBC
2) Lymphoblasts on PBS
3) 2+ cytopenias

6

What should be included in the differential for Leukemia?

- EBV (Mono)
- Acute anemia
- Parvovirus B19
- ITP

7

Kids with what genetic abnormality are at an increased risk for ALL?

Down's Syndrome

8

What are the nongenetic risk factors for ALL?

X-rays/ radiation

9

What is the most common type of ALL?

B-ALL

10

What is the most common involvement of B-ALL?

Extramedullary

11

What group of children is T ALL more common in?

Male adolescents

12

What is the presentation of T-ALL?

- Mediastinal mass
- High WBC mass
- LAD that resembles Mumps

13

What is the greatest risk factor in B-ALL?

Response to induction therapy in the first 28 days

14

What is the most common solid tumor of childhood?

Brain tumors

15

What is the most common brain tumor of childhood?

Astrocytomas

****Note that this is specifically a low grade JPA****

16

Where is the most common location for an astrocytoma?

Posterior fossa

17

What is the standard of care for an astrocytoma?

Total resection i.e. neurosurgery

18

What are the signs and symptoms of a brain tumor?

- Neuro/ increased ICP signs/sx
- Regression of milestones

19

Why is chemotherapy relatively ineffective in treating astrocytomas?

- Low grade means less proliferation
- Slow growing tumors are hard to target with chemotherapy

20

Radiation has a potential for use in all tumors but which one?

Choroid plexus tumors

21

What are the long-term effects of radiation therapy in children for brain tumors?

1) Neuro-cognitive impairment
2) Hearing changes
3) Secondary cancer
4) Endocrine abnormalities
5) Skeletal growth abnormalities

22

What disease are astrocytomas most commonly associated with? What is second?

1) NF-1
2) Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

23

What is a Wilm's tumor?

Renal tumor that is the 2nd most common type of abdominal malignancy in children

24

What gene is mutated in Wilm's tumors?

WT1 tumor suppressor mutation

25

What race are Wilm's tumors more common in?

African Americans

26

What are the symptoms associated with Wilm's Tumor?

- HTN
- Hematuria
- Fever

27

Describe the etiology of Retinoblastoma.

Loss of both Rb alleles
- 60% are spontaneous
- 40% are hereditary

28

Where are neuroblastomas located? Where are the common metastases of neruoblastomas located at diagnosis?

Any neural crest tissue for primary tumor i.e.
- Adrenal tissue
- Parasympathetic tissue (cerivical, thoracic, pelvic)

Mets: bone, lymph nodes, skin, liver

29

What are the signs and symptoms of a neuroblastoma?

- Proptosis
- Bone lesions
- Periorbital ecchymoses i.e. "Racoon eyes"

30

How do neuroblastomas commonly present?

1) Large abdominal mass that crosses the midline
2) LE weakness
3) Cervical or high thoracic mass causing Horner's Syndrome

31

What is the average age of onset for a neuroblastoma?

18 months

32

What is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children?

Neuroblastoma

33

What is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma?

Rhabdomyosarcoma

34

What are the signs and symptoms of a Rhabdomyosarcoma involving the head and neck?

Proptosis
Periorbital swelling

35

What are the signs and symptoms of a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma?

1) CN palsy
2) Hearing loss
3) Chronic aural or sinus drainage

36

What are the signs and symptoms of a male GU rhabdomyosarcoma?

- Hematuria
- Urinary obstruction

37

What are the signs and symptoms of a paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma?

Pain testicular mass

38

What are the signs and symptoms of a vaginal/uteral rhabdomyosarcoma?

1) Abdominal mass
2) Vaginal mass
3) Vaginal bleeding or discharge

39

What is a Rhabdomyosarcoma?

Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that differentiate into muscle

40

At what age do Ewing's Sarcomas peak?

11-15 years old

41

How do Ewing's Sarcomas present?

Limb pain and swelling, frequently after a sports related injury

****More common in boys*****

42

Where do osteosarcomas typically present?

Long bones metaphyses (wide part near growth plate):
- Distal femur
- Proximal tibia
- Proximal humerus
- Pelvis

43

Where do Ewing Sarcoma's typically present?

Long bone diaphyses (narrow part)
Flat bones