EXAM #3: COMMON HEMATOLOGIC PRESENTATIONS Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #3: COMMON HEMATOLOGIC PRESENTATIONS > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #3: COMMON HEMATOLOGIC PRESENTATIONS Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

Why is angina a common symptom of anemia in patients with pre-existing CAD?

Decreased oxygen delivery to the heart b/c of decreased oxygen in the blood

2

What is the definition of anemia in males and feamles?

- Males= Hb less than 13.5
- Females= Hb less than 12.5

3

What are the common causes of a microcytic anemia?

1) Fe++ deficiency
2) ACD
3) Sideroblastic anemia
4) Thalassemia

4

How does iron deficiency lead to microcytic anemia?

Hb= heme + globin

- Decreased iron
- Decreased heme
- Decreased Hb
-->Microcytic anemia

5

What is the most common cause of Fe++ deficiency in infants?

Breast-feeding

6

What is the most common cause of Fe++ deficiency in children?

Poor diet

7

What is the most common cause of Fe++ deficiency in Adults?

PUD vs. hookworm

8

What is the most common cause of Fe++ deficiency in Elderly?

Colon polyps/carcinoma

9

What lab values are characteristic of Fe++ deficiency anemia?

- Decreased ferritin
- Increased TBIC
- Decreased serum Fe++
- Decreased %saturation
- Increased FEP

10

How does increased Hepcidin production in ACD lead to microcytic anemia?

1) Hepcidin sequesters Fe++ in storage sites
2) Decreased available Fe++
3) Decreased heme
4) Decreased Hb

-->Microcytic anemia

11

What are the lab findings in ACD?

- Increased Ferretin
- Decreased TIBC
- Decreased serum Fe++
- Decreased %saturation
- Increased FEP

12

Explain the etiology of sideroblastic anemia leading to microcytic anemia.

Sideroblastic anemia= congenital defect in ALA Synthease, the rate limiting step of heme synthesis

1) Decreased protoporphyrin
2) Decreased heme
3) Decreased Hb

-->Microcytic anemia

13

When protoporphyrin is deficient, where is Fe++ trapped? What does this lead to?

Mitochondria --> "Ringer sideroblasts"

14

What are the acquired causes of sideroblastic anemia?

Alcoholism
Pb poisoning
Vitamin B6 deficiency

****B6 is the cofactor for ALA synthase****

15

What are the lab findings in sideroblastic anemia?

- Increased ferretin
- Decreased TBIC
- Increased serum Fe++
- Increased %saturation

16

Outline the etiology of microcytic anemia in Thalassemia.

Decreased synthesis of globin chains=
- Decreased Hb

-->Microcytic anemia

17

What is the hallmark PBS finding of Beta-Thalassemia?

Target cells

18

What is the approach to treating stable Fe++ deficiency anemia in the elderly?

Oral Fe++ therapy with 325 mg of Ferrous Sulfate and 500 units Vitamin C

19

What are the most common causes of macrocytic anemia?

Folate/ B12 deficiency

20

How do Folate and B12 deficiency lead to macrocytic anemia?

Both are necessary for DNA precursors; leads to cell enlargement without division

21

What type of neutrophil is associated with Folate and B12 deficiency?

Hypersegmented i.e. greater than 5 lobes

22

Folate deficiency picmonic.

See picmonic.

23

B12 deficiency picmonic.

See picmonic.

24

What are the lab findings associated with folate deficiency?

1) Decreased folate
2) Increased homocysteine
3) Normal MMA

25

What does increased homocysteine increase the risk for?

Thrombosis

26

What are the lab findings associated with B12 deficiency?

1) Decreased B12
2) Increased serum homocystine
3) Increased MMA

27

How is B12 deficiency treated?

1) Parenteranl injection
2) Oral supplementation

28

How do you correct a RC count?

RC x Hct/45

29

What does a corrected RC count greater than 3 represent?

Good marrow response

30

What does a corrected RC count less than 3 represent?

Poor marrow response