EXAM #3: ACUTE LEUKEMIA Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #3: ACUTE LEUKEMIA > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #3: ACUTE LEUKEMIA Deck (38):
1

What are the myeloid cell lines?

Granulocytes
Monocytes
Erythrocytes
Megakaryocytes

2

What are the lymphoid cell lines?

B-cells
T-cells

3

What are the tools used to diagnose leukemia?

- PBS
- Bone marrow

4

What patient population is AML most common in?

Males over 65 years-old

5

What patient population is ALL most common is?

Children

6

What is the most important genetic association with acute leukemia?

Trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome)

7

What is the old name for MDS?

"Pre-Leukemia"

8

What exposures can cause MDS?

1) Benzene
2) Radiation therapy
3) Tobacco
4) Chemotherapy--alkylating agents

9

What patient population is CML most common in?

Males over 65 years-old

10

What is the most common form of Leukemia in adults?

CLL

11

What are the symptoms associated with Acute Leukemia?

- Fatigue
- Pallor
- Weakness
- Bone pain
- Anemia
- Neutropenia

12

What is Sweet's Syndrome?

Acute febrile netrophilic dermatosis

13

Is organomegaly common in AML?

NO

14

What is a Myeloid Sarcoma?

AML with extra-medullary disease

15

What is APL?

Acute Progranulocytic Leukemia

16

What is an Auer Rod?

Fused lysozomes and neutrophilic granules

17

What are Auer Rods pathognomonic for?

AML

18

What is Leukemia Cutis?

Leukemia in the skin (AML)

19

What is pathognomonic for Acute Monocytic Leukemia?

Gingival hypertrophy/ hyperplasia

20

How is Leukemia diagnosed?

BM aspiration from Posterior Iliac Crest (PIC)

21

What is the trend in terms of death with AML therapy and advancing age/ ECOG score?

Death with therapy approaches 60% with a ECOG score of 3 and older than 69

22

What has to happen to the bone marrow in treatment of AML?

Bone Marrow elimiation

23

What is the standard induction plan for AML treatment?

7+3

****7x days of three chemotheraputic drugs that results in elimination of the bone marrow

24

What follows up standard induction therapy for AML?

Consolidation therapy

25

What is the exception to standard induction and consolidation therapy?

APL

26

What are the supportive measures for AML induction?

1) Irradiated RBCs
2) Prophylactic antibiotics
3) Growth factors (GM-CSF)
4) HEPA rooms
5) Low microbial diets

27

What is a HEPA room?

High positive pressure air flow rooms

28

What are the side effects of tumor induction in AML?

Tumor-lysis syndrome (hyperuriciemia)

29

What genetic translocation causes APL?

t(15:17)
- RARR translocation

30

What is the treatment for APL?

ATRA i.e. all trans retinoic acid

31

What are the major side effects of APL?

1) APL Differentiation Syndrome/ Retinoic Acid Syndrome
2) DIC

32

What is the prognosis for ALL in those over 35 years-old?

Bad

33

What group of patients with ALL normally gets a Bone Marrow Transplant?

Adults

34

What is the presentation for CML?

1) Bleeding
2) Fatigue
3) Fever
4) Frequency infection
5) Weight loss
6) Anorexia
7) LUQ pain
8) Night sweats

35

Who argued that specific gene translocations caused specific diseases?

Jane Rowley, MD

36

What did Jane Rowley, MD describe?

t(9:22) in CML

37

What did the t(9:22) translation create?

BCR-ABL fusion gene coding for a constitutively active tyrosine kinase

38

What is the major drug used to treat CML?

Imatinib/ Gleevec