EXAM #2: RADIATION ONCOLOGY Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #2: RADIATION ONCOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #2: RADIATION ONCOLOGY Deck (46)
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1

What is the most fatal cancer in the world?

Lung

2

What are the three most common cancers in men?

Prostate
Lung and bronchus
Colon and rectum

3

What are the three most common cancers in women?

Breast
Lung and bronchus
Colon and rectum

4

What are the four basic patterns of cancer progression?

1) Local-growth
2) Local-extension i.e. tumor invades adjacent organs
3) Lymph node metastases
4) Hematogenous metastases

5

What stage does local tumor growth determine?

T-stage

6

What stage does local extension affect?

Upstaging the T-stage

7

What stage does lymph node metastases affect?

N-stage

8

What stage does hematogenous metastasis affect?

M-stage

9

What cancers does radiation take the place of surgery in?

1) Anal
2) Limited stage small cell lung
3) Esophageal
4) Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer

10

What cancers is radiation used as an adjuvant therapy in?

1) Breast
2) Skin with positive margins
3) Prostate
4) Uterine/ endometrial

****Note that radiation is used AFTER the main surgical treatment****

11

What is radiation?

Use of EM and particulate ionizing raidation

12

How is the dose of radiation measured?

Gray

13

What is the most common form of radiation?

Daily external delivery of photons i.e. x-rays over multiple weeks

14

Why is external beam radiation therapy given over time?

This is required for maximal tumor kill and minimal damage to normal tissue damage

15

What does radiosensitive mean?

Tumor melts with radiation

16

What does radioresponsive mean?

Tumor melts quickly with radiation

17

What is Brachytherapy?

Any source that emits a halo of radiation

E.g. prostate seeds

18

What is the most important lesion induced by radiation?

Double strand DNA break

19

What is the most radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle?

M/G2

20

What is the radioresistant phase of the cell cycle?

S

21

What is the RT in radiation therapy? What are the implications?

Theraputic ratio of radiation, like a TI

The bigger the number the more cancerous tissue is specifically targeted

22

Why are hypoxic cells the most radioresistant?

Oxygenation enhances ds-DNA breaks

23

What part of tumors is the most hypoxic?

Central portion

24

What is the standard dose of radation?

180-200 cGy per day

25

What is hypofractionation dose radiation?

Very high dose radiation

26

What types of cancer are typically radiated for palliative reasons?

Brain mets
Bone mets

27

What are the five levels of treatment complexity in radiation?

1) Non-planned
2) 2D
3) 3DCRT
4) IMRT
5) SRS/FSRT/SBRT

28

What is 3D-CRT?

- Computer based treatment plan
- Designs treatment to target the tumor and avoid normal structure

*****Causes a "leaking" or radiation into nearby critical structures*****

29

What is IMRT?

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a high-precision radiotherapy that uses computer-controlled linear accelerator to deliver precise radiation doses to a malignant tumor

****This prevents harm to surrounding structures and is at limiting collateral damage than 3D-CRT*****

30

What is SRS?

Stereotactic Radiosurgery

****This creates an x,y, and z axes to localize brain lesions*****