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Hematology and Oncology > First Aid Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid Review Deck (72):
1

Azurophilic granules contain...

Proteinases, acid phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and beta-glucuronidase

2

Hypersegmented polys (5 or more lobes) are seen in...

Vitamin B12/folate deficiency

3

Increase in % band cells (immature neutrophils) reflects state of...

Increased myeloid proliferation (bacterial infections, CML)

4

Important neutrophil chemotactic agents include...

C5a, IL-8, LTB4, kallikrein, platelet-activating factor

5

Which cell type is characterized by a large, kidney-shaped nucleus and extensive "frosted glass" cytoplasm?

Monocyte.

6

Macrophages are activated by...

Gamma-interferon.

7

Lipid A from bacterial LPS binds...on macrophages to initiate septic shock.

CD14

8

...defend against helminthic infections by producing...

Eosinophils; major basic protein

9

Which cell type is characterized by a bilobate nucleus and a cytoplasm packed with large eosinophilic granules of uniform size?

Eosinophils

10

Causes of eosinophilia (hint: NAACP)

1. Neoplasia
2. Asthma
3. Allergic processes
4. Chronic adrenal insufficiency
5. Parasites (invasive)

11

Eosinophils produce...

Histaminase and major basic protein (a helminthotoxin)

12

The densely basophilic granules of basophils contain...

Heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (vasodilator).

13

Basophils mediate...

Allergic reaction.

14

Basophilia is uncommon, but can be a sign of...

Myeloproliferative disease, particularly CML.

15

Mast cells contain...and originate from the same precursor as...but are not the same cell type.

Basophilic granules; basophils

16

Mast cells can bind...

The Fc portion of IgE to membrane

17

IgE...upon antigen binding, causing..., which releases...

Cross-links; degranulation; histamine, heparin, and eosinophil chemotactic factors

18

Drug used for asthma prophylaxis

Cromolyn sodium -- prevents mast cell degranulation

19

Mast cells mediate...

Type I hypersensitivity reactions in local tissues.

20

Dendritic cells are called...in the skin.

Langerhans cells

21

B cells originate from...and mature in...

Stem cells in bone marrow; marrow

22

When antigen is encountered, B cells differentiate into...

Plasma cells (which produce antibodies) and memory cells.

23

B cells express which CD molecules?

CD19, CD20, CD21

24

T cells originate from..., but mature in...

Stem cells in the bone marrow; the thymus

25

CD molecule that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T-cell activation.

CD28

26

Which cell type is characterized "clock-face" chromatin distribution, abundant RER, and well-developed Golgi apparatus?

Plasma cell

27

Cancer of plasma cells

Multiple myeloma

28

Universal donors of RBCs

Individuals with type O blood

29

Universal recipients of plasma

Individuals with type O blood

30

Universal recipients of RBCs

Individuals with type AB blood

31

Universal donors of plasma

Individuals with type AB blood

32

Antibodies in plasma of individuals with type A blood

Anti-B IgM antibodies

33

Antibodies in plasma of individuals with type B blood

Anti-A IgM antibodies

34

Antibodies in plasma of individuals with type O blood

Anti-A and anti-B IgM antibodies

35

Individuals with type A blood experience a hemolytic reaction if they receive RBCs from...

Individuals with either type B or type AB blood

36

Individuals with type B blood develop a hemolytic reaction if they receive RBCs from...

Individuals with type A or type AB blood.

37

Individuals with type O blood experience a hemolytic reaction if they receive...

Any non-O RBCs.

38

Rh- individuals produce...if exposed to Rh+ blood.

Anti-D IgG antibodies.

39

Treat Rh- mothers with...after each pregnancy to prevent...

Rh(D) immunoglobulin; anti-D IgG formation

40

Administration of...to Rh- pregnant women during the third trimester prevents...

RhoGAM; maternal anti-Rh IgG production

41

Hemophilia A

Deficiency of factor VIII (X-linked recessive)

42

Hemophilia B

Deficiency of factor IX (X-linked recessive)

43

Hemophilia C

Deficiency of factor XI (autosomal recessive)

44

High molecular weight kininogen is cleaved by...to yield...

Kallikrein; bradykinin

45

Bradykinin mediates...

1. Increased vasodilation
2. Increased vascular permeability
3. Pain

46

Bradykinin is inactivated by...

ACE

47

Extrinsic coagulation pathway involves...

Activation of factor VII through interaction with thromboplastin (i.e., tissue factor), which is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and adventitial fibroblasts.

48

Intrinsic coagulation pathway involves...

1. Activation of factor XII to XIIa by interaction with collagen, basement membrane, activated platelets, and HMWK
2. XIIa activates factor XI to XIa
3. XIa activates factor IX to IXa

49

Both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways converge on factor X and proceed via the combined coagulation pathway. Describe this shared pathway.

1. Factor VIIa of the extrinsic pathway activates factor X to Xa OR factor IXa of the intrinsic pathway (alongside factor VIIIa) activates factor X to Xa
2. Factor Xa (alongside factor Va) activates factor II (prothrombin) to IIa (thrombin)
3. Factor IIa (thrombin) then activates factor I (fibrinogen) to factor Ia (fibrin)
4. Factor XIIIa (along with Ca2+) stabilizes fibrin aggregation

50

Anticoagulants that target factor Xa

1. LMWH (greatest efficacy)
2. Unfractionated heparin
3. Direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban)
4. Fondaparinux

51

Anticoagulants that target factor IIa (thrombin)

1. Unfractionated heparin (greatest efficacy)
2. LMWH (dalteparin, enoxaparin)
3. Direct thrombin inhibitors (argatroban, bivalirudin, dabigatran)

52

tPA activates...to...

Plasminogen; plasmin

53

Activators of plasminogen include...

1. Alteplase
2. Reteplase
3. Streptokinase
4. Tenecteplase

54

Inhibitor of tPA

Aminocaproic acid

55

Plasmin acts on...to produce...

Fibrin; fibrin degradation products

56

Warfarin inhibits...

Vitamin K epoxide reductase

57

Neonates lack..., which produce...

Enteric bacteria; vitamin K

58

Vitamin K deficiency leads to decreased synthesis of...

Factors II, VII, IX, X, protein C, protein S.

59

vWF carries/protects...

Factor VIII

60

Protein C becomes activated through interaction with...

thrombin-thrombomodulin complex.

61

Activated protein C interacts with...to cleave and inactivate...

Protein S; factors Va, VIIIa

62

Antithrombin inhibits activated forms of factors...

II, VII, IX, X, XI, XII

63

Heparin enhances the activity of...

Antithrombin

64

Principal targets of antithrombin

1. Thrombin
2. Factor Xa

65

Factor V Leiden mutation produces a factor V resistant to...

Inhibition by activated protein C.

66

Acanthocytes ("spur cells") are associated with...

1. Liver disease
2. Abetalipoproteinemia (states of cholesterol dysregulation)

67

Basophilic stippling of RBCs is associated with...

Lead poisoning

68

Degmacytes ("bite cells") are associated with...

G6PD deficiency

69

Elliptocytes are associated with...

Hereditary elliptocytosis

70

Macro-ovalocytes are associated with...

1. Megaloblastic anemia
2. Marrow failure

71

Ringed sideroblasts are seen in...and represent...

Sideroblastic anemia; excess iron in mitochondria

72

Specific granules contain...

ALP, collagenase, lysozyme, lactoferrin