Flashcards in First Aid Review Deck (72):
Azurophilic granules contain...
Proteinases, acid phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and beta-glucuronidase
Hypersegmented polys (5 or more lobes) are seen in...
Vitamin B12/folate deficiency
Increase in % band cells (immature neutrophils) reflects state of...
Increased myeloid proliferation (bacterial infections, CML)
Important neutrophil chemotactic agents include...
C5a, IL-8, LTB4, kallikrein, platelet-activating factor
Which cell type is characterized by a large, kidney-shaped nucleus and extensive "frosted glass" cytoplasm?
Macrophages are activated by...
Lipid A from bacterial LPS binds...on macrophages to initiate septic shock.
...defend against helminthic infections by producing...
Eosinophils; major basic protein
Which cell type is characterized by a bilobate nucleus and a cytoplasm packed with large eosinophilic granules of uniform size?
Causes of eosinophilia (hint: NAACP)
3. Allergic processes
4. Chronic adrenal insufficiency
5. Parasites (invasive)
Histaminase and major basic protein (a helminthotoxin)
The densely basophilic granules of basophils contain...
Heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (vasodilator).
Basophilia is uncommon, but can be a sign of...
Myeloproliferative disease, particularly CML.
Mast cells contain...and originate from the same precursor as...but are not the same cell type.
Basophilic granules; basophils
Mast cells can bind...
The Fc portion of IgE to membrane
IgE...upon antigen binding, causing..., which releases...
Cross-links; degranulation; histamine, heparin, and eosinophil chemotactic factors
Drug used for asthma prophylaxis
Cromolyn sodium -- prevents mast cell degranulation
Mast cells mediate...
Type I hypersensitivity reactions in local tissues.
Dendritic cells are called...in the skin.
B cells originate from...and mature in...
Stem cells in bone marrow; marrow
When antigen is encountered, B cells differentiate into...
Plasma cells (which produce antibodies) and memory cells.
B cells express which CD molecules?
CD19, CD20, CD21
T cells originate from..., but mature in...
Stem cells in the bone marrow; the thymus
CD molecule that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T-cell activation.
Which cell type is characterized "clock-face" chromatin distribution, abundant RER, and well-developed Golgi apparatus?
Cancer of plasma cells
Universal donors of RBCs
Individuals with type O blood
Universal recipients of plasma
Individuals with type O blood
Universal recipients of RBCs
Individuals with type AB blood
Universal donors of plasma
Individuals with type AB blood
Antibodies in plasma of individuals with type A blood
Anti-B IgM antibodies
Antibodies in plasma of individuals with type B blood
Anti-A IgM antibodies
Antibodies in plasma of individuals with type O blood
Anti-A and anti-B IgM antibodies
Individuals with type A blood experience a hemolytic reaction if they receive RBCs from...
Individuals with either type B or type AB blood
Individuals with type B blood develop a hemolytic reaction if they receive RBCs from...
Individuals with type A or type AB blood.
Individuals with type O blood experience a hemolytic reaction if they receive...
Any non-O RBCs.
Rh- individuals produce...if exposed to Rh+ blood.
Anti-D IgG antibodies.
Treat Rh- mothers with...after each pregnancy to prevent...
Rh(D) immunoglobulin; anti-D IgG formation
Administration of...to Rh- pregnant women during the third trimester prevents...
RhoGAM; maternal anti-Rh IgG production
Deficiency of factor VIII (X-linked recessive)
Deficiency of factor IX (X-linked recessive)
Deficiency of factor XI (autosomal recessive)
High molecular weight kininogen is cleaved by...to yield...
1. Increased vasodilation
2. Increased vascular permeability
Bradykinin is inactivated by...
Extrinsic coagulation pathway involves...
Activation of factor VII through interaction with thromboplastin (i.e., tissue factor), which is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and adventitial fibroblasts.
Intrinsic coagulation pathway involves...
1. Activation of factor XII to XIIa by interaction with collagen, basement membrane, activated platelets, and HMWK
2. XIIa activates factor XI to XIa
3. XIa activates factor IX to IXa
Both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways converge on factor X and proceed via the combined coagulation pathway. Describe this shared pathway.
1. Factor VIIa of the extrinsic pathway activates factor X to Xa OR factor IXa of the intrinsic pathway (alongside factor VIIIa) activates factor X to Xa
2. Factor Xa (alongside factor Va) activates factor II (prothrombin) to IIa (thrombin)
3. Factor IIa (thrombin) then activates factor I (fibrinogen) to factor Ia (fibrin)
4. Factor XIIIa (along with Ca2+) stabilizes fibrin aggregation
Anticoagulants that target factor Xa
1. LMWH (greatest efficacy)
2. Unfractionated heparin
3. Direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban)
Anticoagulants that target factor IIa (thrombin)
1. Unfractionated heparin (greatest efficacy)
2. LMWH (dalteparin, enoxaparin)
3. Direct thrombin inhibitors (argatroban, bivalirudin, dabigatran)
Activators of plasminogen include...
Inhibitor of tPA
Plasmin acts on...to produce...
Fibrin; fibrin degradation products
Vitamin K epoxide reductase
Neonates lack..., which produce...
Enteric bacteria; vitamin K
Vitamin K deficiency leads to decreased synthesis of...
Factors II, VII, IX, X, protein C, protein S.
Protein C becomes activated through interaction with...
Activated protein C interacts with...to cleave and inactivate...
Protein S; factors Va, VIIIa
Antithrombin inhibits activated forms of factors...
II, VII, IX, X, XI, XII
Heparin enhances the activity of...
Principal targets of antithrombin
2. Factor Xa
Factor V Leiden mutation produces a factor V resistant to...
Inhibition by activated protein C.
Acanthocytes ("spur cells") are associated with...
1. Liver disease
2. Abetalipoproteinemia (states of cholesterol dysregulation)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs is associated with...
Degmacytes ("bite cells") are associated with...
Elliptocytes are associated with...
Macro-ovalocytes are associated with...
1. Megaloblastic anemia
2. Marrow failure
Ringed sideroblasts are seen in...and represent...
Sideroblastic anemia; excess iron in mitochondria