EXAM #2: INTRODUCTION TO SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Oncology > EXAM #2: INTRODUCTION TO SURGICAL ONCOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #2: INTRODUCTION TO SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Deck (21):
1

What website is the best resource for understanding the role of surgery in cancer therapy?

www.nccn.org

Specifically, the guidelines/ treatment recommendations.

2

What are the three major cancers that are NOT amenable to surgery?

Leukemia
Lymphoma
Small Cell Lung Cancer

3

What factor makes a cancer non-curable?

Distant metastasis

4

What is a negative margin in surgery?

The normal tissue that is removed with the surgical excision of a tumor, growth, or malignancy

5

What is the negative margin in breast cancer?

1mm

6

What is the negative margin in colon cancer?

5cm

7

What is "formal resection" in cancer?

- In colon resection; removal of the colon/cancerous tissue at the arterial root coming off the aorta to ensure removal of all the "curtains of lymph nodes"

This is in contrast to removal of the colon distal to the aorta for a colon resection to treat diverticulitis.

8

What is a major way to use surgery to diagnose a cancer?

Biopsy

9

How do you decide where to do a biopsy?

Go for the:
1) Most accessible
2) Least invasive

10

What surgical decision do you need to make about metastatic cancers?

Can removing the primary cancer + adjuvant chemotherapy cure, or do I need to take out the mets as well?

11

What is the procedure called that biopsy a breast cancer?

Stereotaxic needle biopsy

12

What is the procedure to determine the metastatic status of a breast cancer?

Sentinel lymph node biopsy

13

When are the two major cancers where surgery is a primary treatment?

Breast cancer
Colon cancer

14

When is surgery used as a secondary treatment?

Advanced stage:
- Esophageal
- Rectal
- Lung
- Breast

***But NOT stage 4****

15

What is neoadjuvant therapy?

Chemotherapy/ radiation used prior to surgery to downstage a tumor

16

What is surgery as a palliative measure?

Surgery to alleviate pain and improve quality of life

17

What are indications for palliative surgery in the face of cancer?

Bleeding
Obstruction
Perforation
Pain

18

What is a tumor type that is very amenable to "debulking" without obtaining negative margins?

Neuroendorince tumors e.g. pheochromocytoma

19

What are the hereditary cancer syndromes that warrant prophylactic surgery?

- BRCA (Breast)
- Lynch Syndrome (Colon)
- Gardner Syndrome (Colon)
- MEN

20

What are the major oncologic emergencies?

- SVC Syndrome
- Perforated viscus e.g. esophageal

21

What is SVC Syndrome?

Lung tumor that compresses the SVC

Must the stented and radiated emergently.