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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of old law tenements - OLT

- Three to seven stories in height - 20' or 25' wide - 50' to 85' deep.
- Class 3, non-fireproof construction (brick walls, wood floor beams and wood floors)
- Two means of egress from each apartment almost always consisting of an interior stairway and a fire escape.
- Two to four apartments on each floor.
- Originally the stairs and stairway enclosures were wood with wood lath and plaster partitions. In 1934 most of these buildings were required to fire retard the stairway enclosure.
- To provide light and air to each room, shafts of different shapes and sizes are provided between adjoining buildings.
- "Railroad Flats" are those apartments which extend from the front of the building to the rear. There are usually two of these apartments on each floor. Buildings with these apartments usually have fire escapes in the rear. The ever dangerous exceptions to this are those buildings with railroad flats whose secondary means of egress is a front fire escape. The absence of a rear fire escape is of major concern for the safety of the operating forces. This information should be relayed immediately.
- Some OLT's have four apartments on a floor. These buildings have fire escapes on both the front and the rear.
- Stairway to the cellar is located inside the building, usually beneath the interior stairway.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of new law tenements built after 4/21/1901 NLT

- Generally six or seven stories high - 35' to 50' frontage - 85' in depth.
- Five to six apartments per floor.
- first floor (cellar ceiling) is of fireproof construction and unpierced.
- entrance to the cellar is by way of an exterior stairs.
- interior stairs are fireproof and enclosed in partitions of fireproof construction. Apartment doors are constructed of fire resistant materials.
- second means of egress is either another stairway or an exterior fire escape. The fire escape is more generally found in these buildings.
- All interior walls and furred partitions are required to be fire stopped at each story.
- Steel "I" beams were introduced to carry floor joists which couldn't span the enlarged floor areas. These steel beams generally were supported by masonry walls.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of newer type NLT built between 1916 & 1929:

- much larger floor area, e.g. 150' x 200'.
- To avoid being required to be built of fireproof construction, the floor areas were broken up into units of 2500 square feet or less.
- between some apartments there are brick or fireproof partitions which effectively limit the horizontal spread of fire - these dividing walls only go as high as the ceiling of the top floor. This results in a very large undivided cockloft area.
- Unprotected steel beams are used to support some of the wood floor joists. These steel beams are supported by vertical steel columns which run the height of the building.
- Wooden floor joists (beams) run horizontally from brick wall to a steel girder or from a steel girder to a steel girder.
- There are several dumbwaiter shafts, located in the apartments. In most cases 2 apartments share 1 dumbwaiter. They terminate on the roof in a bulkhead with a skylight on top.
- Elevators are provided in some buildings. They run from the cellar to the top floor with a bulkhead on the roof.
- Entrance to the basement is by a side or rear door at that level via an exterior stair from the first floor, or through a passageway located in the front of the building.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of Other Class "A" NFP multiple dwellings built after 4/18/29

- After 4/18/29 the Class "A" apartment type of multiple dwelling became known as "Apartment Houses."
- It must be emphasized that no matter what protection a law provides, it cannot be depended upon entirely in these NFP buildings due to renovations, settling of the building, shoddy workmanship originally or repair work.
- Between 1930 and 1940 firewalls were required to be carried to the underside of the roof boards and after 1940 to the top of the roof boards. These changes were designed to effectively reduce the size of the cockloft and limit fire spread.
- The size of the area to be enclosed by fire walls is 3,000 square feet. This is larger than the area of an OLT and it should be realized that there are several of these areas under one roof of later built multiple dwellings.
- Buildings of extraordinary dimensions are now being built. They include various designs which, although they comply with the 3,000 sq. ft. rule, result in interior public hallways hundreds of feet long.
- The limitation of height, six stories or 75 feet, for NFP residence buildings, is bypassed for buildings that are built on grades. It is not unusual to find a NFP seven, eight, or nine story building with no standpipe.
- Fire escapes as a second means of egress are still very common. Some of the new buildings may have 10 or more.
- Some of the newer buildings have non storage garages below. A sprinkler system may be required, depending when the building was erected.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description FIREPROOF CLASS "A" MULTIPLE DWELLINGS INCLUDING HOUSING PROJECT BUILDINGS

- Four to forty stories or higher. Irregularly shaped clusters of buildings: Double H, Star, rectangular, semi-circular, that may have elevators, incinerators or compactors, standpipes and limited sprinklers.
- Well constructed and maintained. Rarely exposure problems. Life hazard not severe outside of fire apartment.
- Usually poured concrete floors, cinder block or gypsum block walls. Newer buildings use gypsum board (sheetrock) in the interior construction.
- Apartments may be served by two fireproof stairways opening directly into the apartments, or more generally by two fireproof stairways reached by public hallway. The smaller four to six story fireproof buildings usually have one fireproof stairs which may be open or enclosed and runs from first floor to roof.

First floor may contain:

Large stores, supermarkets, day care centers, clinics, offices, the size of which may cover several apartments on the second floor.

Cellars and basements may contain:

Parking garages, laundry rooms, meeting rooms, stock areas for the first floor stores, tenant storage, incinerator or compactor rooms, loading docks.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

If possible what suction should engine companies use?

Exercise caution when using the front suction inlet so as not to block out arriving ladder apparatus. Place the apparatus as close to parked cars as possible and use the side suction inlet. This will permit an aerial ladder or tower ladder to get in front of the fire building if necessary

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

In most cases, the first line stretched via _______ to ________. What would an exception to this rule be?

In most cases the first line is stretched through the interior stairs to the fire apartment.

Exception to this when flame is issuing from windows opening onto the fire escape and endangering people trying to come down the fire escape. In this case, the 1st line may be operated from the street to protect people on the fire escape, 2nd line should be promptly stretched into the interior of the building.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The second engine company to arrive shall ____________ . They must ________________________________________.

The second engine company to arrive shall assist in stretching the first line. They must remain together as a unit and relieve the first engine company as required.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

After two lines have been stretched up a stairway, additional lines should be stretched via ______________________________.

After two lines have been stretched up a stairway, additional lines should be stretched via fire escapes or windows, making use of ropes to pull up hoselines.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Hoselines should be operated into ventilation holes from the roof as this increases ventilation and assists the action of lines operating on the top floor.

FALSE

Hoselines SHOULD NOT be operated into ventilation holes from the roof as this DECREASES ventilation and NULLIFIES the action of lines operating on the top floor. A roof line should be used only to prevent fire from extending past the trench, to protect exposures, or to extinguish fire that cannot be reached from below, such as fire in a cornice.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The first line stretched for a fire in a multiple dwelling should be stretched via ________________.

Interior stairs

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The second hoseline is usually stretched by way of the ___________ to the _______________. It is meant to augment the first line, if necessary. If not needed on the original fire floor it is then advanced to the ______________.

The second hoseline is also usually stretched by way of the INTERIOR STAIRS to the SAME FLOOR AS THE FIRST LINE. It is meant to augment the first line, if necessary. If not needed on the original fire floor it is then advanced to the FLOOR ABOVE.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The third line in the building should usually be stretched via the _____________.

FIRE ESCAPE

The third line in the building should usually be stretched via the FIRE ESCAPE.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

In some cases, the second or third lines may be urgently needed in one of the exposures. The decision as to the location to which these lines shall be stretched rests with the _______________ and is based on his/her size-up of the fire situation.

INCIDENT COMMANDER

In some cases, the second or third lines may be urgently needed in one of the exposures. The decision as to the location to which these lines shall be stretched rests with the INCIDENT COMMANDER and is based on his/her size-up of the fire situation.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

TRUE/FALSE

Officers must not permit any material to be thrown out of windows unnecessarily. A member should always be posted in the yard or street below to prevent injuries to anyone from falling material. Examination of yard must be made before discarding any material into the yard to assure that no occupant has jumped into the yard prior to the arrival of Fire Department units. No material shall be thrown onto roofs of building setbacks or into narrow shafts.

TRUE

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

It is the responsibility of the first ladder company to arrive to determine the ____________, _____________ and ____________.

LOCATION OF THE FIRE
WHETHER IT IS EXTENDING
TO WHERE IT IS EXTENDING


It is the responsibility of the first ladder company to arrive to determine the location of the fire, whether it is extending and to where it is extending.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

At top floor fires what will aid in conjunction with a hole in the roof that usually results in an indraft of fresh air into the top floor permitting the advancement of hoseline and search operations?

Ventilation of top floor windows

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Once a sector/group supervisor is assigned, units assigned to such sectors/groups shall report ___________, and sector/group supervisors directly to the _____________. Units not assigned to a sector/group supervisor will report directly to the __________________.

Once a sector/group supervisor is assigned, units assigned to such sectors/groups shall report directly to their SECTOR/GROUP SUPERVISIOR, and sector/group supervisors directly to the INCIDENT COMMANDER. Units not assigned to a sector/group supervisor will report directly to theINCIDENT COMMANDER.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

For fire on two floors, in an OLT what should the incident commander do?

Special call an extra engine and truck

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

If progress is not made on at least one floor in a short period of time during a fire involving two floors in an OLT, what should the incident commander do?

Transmit a 2nd alarm

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

If fire is in a shaft extending into an exposure, transmit _________. If fire is extending into two exposures, transmit _________.

If fire is in a shaft extending into an exposure, transmit a 2nd ALARM. If fire is extending into two exposures, transmit a 3rd ALARM.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Where should members not engaged in firefighting operations remain inside the building?

HALLWAYS ON THE FLOORS BELOW.

Members inside the building and not engaged in operations should remain in the hallways on the floors below the fire and not crowd the stairs and landings.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The first officer inside the fire building must make known to the __________ and _________, the manner in which _________________ , i.e., whether numerically or alphabetically. Apartment 2E could be on the second floor or on the fifth floor.

The first officer inside the fire building must make known to the IC and OTHER MEMBERS the manner in which THE FLOORS AND APARTMENTS ARE DESIGNATED, i.e., whether numerically or alphabetically. Apartment 2E could be on the second floor or on the fifth floor.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

What is a good way for units to become familiar with problems associated with these types of buildings?

MULTI-UNIT DRILL

Multi-unit drills at previous fire scenes are a good way to become familiar with the problems associated with these buildings.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

What are some situations that may call for the use of outside streams at multiple dwelling fires?

- To protect life by putting a stream between the fire and the occupants.

- To protect exposures.

- To confine the fire.

- To diminish heavy fire so that an interior attack can be made.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Who is the only person that can order the use of outside streams at MD fires?

Only the Incident Commander may order the use of outside streams. This may be the officer arriving first. For example, the IC may order the deckpipe used for a store fire.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The use of outside streams into a building can cause injuries to members operating inside the building. Members inside the building must be warned, and moved to safe location before outside streams are directed into the building. This safe location must be verified by _____________ or _____________, by the ______________ of the fire.

The use of outside streams into a building can cause injuries to members operating inside the building. Members inside the building must be warned, and moved to safe location before outside streams are directed into the building. This safe location must be verified by RADIO or PERSONAL CONTACT, by the INCIDENT COMMANDER of the fire.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-GENERAL

Engine companies with lines in exposures can extinguish a great deal of fire in the fire building by operating across a shaft. However, this should not be done without permission of the ____________ as it may drive the fire at members advancing from the interior.

INCIDENT COMMANDER

Engine companies with lines in exposures can extinguish a great deal of fire in the fire building by operating across a shaft. However, this should not be done without permission of the INCIDENT COMMANDER as it may drive the fire at members advancing from the interior.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-GENERAL

The absence of a fire escape on the front of an OLT will usually indicate that the apartments are _____________.

RAILROAD FLATS

The absence of a fire escape on the front of an OLT will usually indicate that the apartments are RAILROAD FLATS.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- CELLAR FIRES

Where is the 1st line stretched for a CELLAR FIRE in an OLT?

The first line should be stretched to the cellar entrance door which is located inside the building, under the interior stairway on the first floor.

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