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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of old law tenements - OLT

- Three to seven stories in height - 20' or 25' wide - 50' to 85' deep.
- Class 3, non-fireproof construction (brick walls, wood floor beams and wood floors)
- Two means of egress from each apartment almost always consisting of an interior stairway and a fire escape.
- Two to four apartments on each floor.
- Originally the stairs and stairway enclosures were wood with wood lath and plaster partitions. In 1934 most of these buildings were required to fire retard the stairway enclosure.
- To provide light and air to each room, shafts of different shapes and sizes are provided between adjoining buildings.
- "Railroad Flats" are those apartments which extend from the front of the building to the rear. There are usually two of these apartments on each floor. Buildings with these apartments usually have fire escapes in the rear. The ever dangerous exceptions to this are those buildings with railroad flats whose secondary means of egress is a front fire escape. The absence of a rear fire escape is of major concern for the safety of the operating forces. This information should be relayed immediately.
- Some OLT's have four apartments on a floor. These buildings have fire escapes on both the front and the rear.
- Stairway to the cellar is located inside the building, usually beneath the interior stairway.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of new law tenements built after 4/21/1901 NLT

- Generally six or seven stories high - 35' to 50' frontage - 85' in depth.
- Five to six apartments per floor.
- first floor (cellar ceiling) is of fireproof construction and unpierced.
- entrance to the cellar is by way of an exterior stairs.
- interior stairs are fireproof and enclosed in partitions of fireproof construction. Apartment doors are constructed of fire resistant materials.
- second means of egress is either another stairway or an exterior fire escape. The fire escape is more generally found in these buildings.
- All interior walls and furred partitions are required to be fire stopped at each story.
- Steel "I" beams were introduced to carry floor joists which couldn't span the enlarged floor areas. These steel beams generally were supported by masonry walls.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of newer type NLT built between 1916 & 1929:

- much larger floor area, e.g. 150' x 200'.
- To avoid being required to be built of fireproof construction, the floor areas were broken up into units of 2500 square feet or less.
- between some apartments there are brick or fireproof partitions which effectively limit the horizontal spread of fire - these dividing walls only go as high as the ceiling of the top floor. This results in a very large undivided cockloft area.
- Unprotected steel beams are used to support some of the wood floor joists. These steel beams are supported by vertical steel columns which run the height of the building.
- Wooden floor joists (beams) run horizontally from brick wall to a steel girder or from a steel girder to a steel girder.
- There are several dumbwaiter shafts, located in the apartments. In most cases 2 apartments share 1 dumbwaiter. They terminate on the roof in a bulkhead with a skylight on top.
- Elevators are provided in some buildings. They run from the cellar to the top floor with a bulkhead on the roof.
- Entrance to the basement is by a side or rear door at that level via an exterior stair from the first floor, or through a passageway located in the front of the building.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description of Other Class "A" NFP multiple dwellings built after 4/18/29

- After 4/18/29 the Class "A" apartment type of multiple dwelling became known as "Apartment Houses."
- It must be emphasized that no matter what protection a law provides, it cannot be depended upon entirely in these NFP buildings due to renovations, settling of the building, shoddy workmanship originally or repair work.
- Between 1930 and 1940 firewalls were required to be carried to the underside of the roof boards and after 1940 to the top of the roof boards. These changes were designed to effectively reduce the size of the cockloft and limit fire spread.
- The size of the area to be enclosed by fire walls is 3,000 square feet. This is larger than the area of an OLT and it should be realized that there are several of these areas under one roof of later built multiple dwellings.
- Buildings of extraordinary dimensions are now being built. They include various designs which, although they comply with the 3,000 sq. ft. rule, result in interior public hallways hundreds of feet long.
- The limitation of height, six stories or 75 feet, for NFP residence buildings, is bypassed for buildings that are built on grades. It is not unusual to find a NFP seven, eight, or nine story building with no standpipe.
- Fire escapes as a second means of egress are still very common. Some of the new buildings may have 10 or more.
- Some of the newer buildings have non storage garages below. A sprinkler system may be required, depending when the building was erected.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES

Description FIREPROOF CLASS "A" MULTIPLE DWELLINGS INCLUDING HOUSING PROJECT BUILDINGS

- Four to forty stories or higher. Irregularly shaped clusters of buildings: Double H, Star, rectangular, semi-circular, that may have elevators, incinerators or compactors, standpipes and limited sprinklers.
- Well constructed and maintained. Rarely exposure problems. Life hazard not severe outside of fire apartment.
- Usually poured concrete floors, cinder block or gypsum block walls. Newer buildings use gypsum board (sheetrock) in the interior construction.
- Apartments may be served by two fireproof stairways opening directly into the apartments, or more generally by two fireproof stairways reached by public hallway. The smaller four to six story fireproof buildings usually have one fireproof stairs which may be open or enclosed and runs from first floor to roof.

First floor may contain:

Large stores, supermarkets, day care centers, clinics, offices, the size of which may cover several apartments on the second floor.

Cellars and basements may contain:

Parking garages, laundry rooms, meeting rooms, stock areas for the first floor stores, tenant storage, incinerator or compactor rooms, loading docks.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

If possible what suction should engine companies use?

Exercise caution when using the front suction inlet so as not to block out arriving ladder apparatus. Place the apparatus as close to parked cars as possible and use the side suction inlet. This will permit an aerial ladder or tower ladder to get in front of the fire building if necessary

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

In most cases, the first line stretched via _______ to ________. What would an exception to this rule be?

In most cases the first line is stretched through the interior stairs to the fire apartment.

Exception to this when flame is issuing from windows opening onto the fire escape and endangering people trying to come down the fire escape. In this case, the 1st line may be operated from the street to protect people on the fire escape, 2nd line should be promptly stretched into the interior of the building.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The second engine company to arrive shall ____________ . They must ________________________________________.

The second engine company to arrive shall assist in stretching the first line. They must remain together as a unit and relieve the first engine company as required.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

After two lines have been stretched up a stairway, additional lines should be stretched via ______________________________.

After two lines have been stretched up a stairway, additional lines should be stretched via fire escapes or windows, making use of ropes to pull up hoselines.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Hoselines should be operated into ventilation holes from the roof as this increases ventilation and assists the action of lines operating on the top floor.

FALSE

Hoselines SHOULD NOT be operated into ventilation holes from the roof as this DECREASES ventilation and NULLIFIES the action of lines operating on the top floor. A roof line should be used only to prevent fire from extending past the trench, to protect exposures, or to extinguish fire that cannot be reached from below, such as fire in a cornice.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The first line stretched for a fire in a multiple dwelling should be stretched via ________________.

Interior stairs

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The second hoseline is usually stretched by way of the ___________ to the _______________. It is meant to augment the first line, if necessary. If not needed on the original fire floor it is then advanced to the ______________.

The second hoseline is also usually stretched by way of the INTERIOR STAIRS to the SAME FLOOR AS THE FIRST LINE. It is meant to augment the first line, if necessary. If not needed on the original fire floor it is then advanced to the FLOOR ABOVE.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The third line in the building should usually be stretched via the _____________.

FIRE ESCAPE

The third line in the building should usually be stretched via the FIRE ESCAPE.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

In some cases, the second or third lines may be urgently needed in one of the exposures. The decision as to the location to which these lines shall be stretched rests with the _______________ and is based on his/her size-up of the fire situation.

INCIDENT COMMANDER

In some cases, the second or third lines may be urgently needed in one of the exposures. The decision as to the location to which these lines shall be stretched rests with the INCIDENT COMMANDER and is based on his/her size-up of the fire situation.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

TRUE/FALSE

Officers must not permit any material to be thrown out of windows unnecessarily. A member should always be posted in the yard or street below to prevent injuries to anyone from falling material. Examination of yard must be made before discarding any material into the yard to assure that no occupant has jumped into the yard prior to the arrival of Fire Department units. No material shall be thrown onto roofs of building setbacks or into narrow shafts.

TRUE

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

It is the responsibility of the first ladder company to arrive to determine the ____________, _____________ and ____________.

LOCATION OF THE FIRE
WHETHER IT IS EXTENDING
TO WHERE IT IS EXTENDING


It is the responsibility of the first ladder company to arrive to determine the location of the fire, whether it is extending and to where it is extending.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

At top floor fires what will aid in conjunction with a hole in the roof that usually results in an indraft of fresh air into the top floor permitting the advancement of hoseline and search operations?

Ventilation of top floor windows

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Once a sector/group supervisor is assigned, units assigned to such sectors/groups shall report ___________, and sector/group supervisors directly to the _____________. Units not assigned to a sector/group supervisor will report directly to the __________________.

Once a sector/group supervisor is assigned, units assigned to such sectors/groups shall report directly to their SECTOR/GROUP SUPERVISIOR, and sector/group supervisors directly to the INCIDENT COMMANDER. Units not assigned to a sector/group supervisor will report directly to theINCIDENT COMMANDER.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

For fire on two floors, in an OLT what should the incident commander do?

Special call an extra engine and truck

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

If progress is not made on at least one floor in a short period of time during a fire involving two floors in an OLT, what should the incident commander do?

Transmit a 2nd alarm

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

If fire is in a shaft extending into an exposure, transmit _________. If fire is extending into two exposures, transmit _________.

If fire is in a shaft extending into an exposure, transmit a 2nd ALARM. If fire is extending into two exposures, transmit a 3rd ALARM.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Where should members not engaged in firefighting operations remain inside the building?

HALLWAYS ON THE FLOORS BELOW.

Members inside the building and not engaged in operations should remain in the hallways on the floors below the fire and not crowd the stairs and landings.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The first officer inside the fire building must make known to the __________ and _________, the manner in which _________________ , i.e., whether numerically or alphabetically. Apartment 2E could be on the second floor or on the fifth floor.

The first officer inside the fire building must make known to the IC and OTHER MEMBERS the manner in which THE FLOORS AND APARTMENTS ARE DESIGNATED, i.e., whether numerically or alphabetically. Apartment 2E could be on the second floor or on the fifth floor.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

What is a good way for units to become familiar with problems associated with these types of buildings?

MULTI-UNIT DRILL

Multi-unit drills at previous fire scenes are a good way to become familiar with the problems associated with these buildings.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

What are some situations that may call for the use of outside streams at multiple dwelling fires?

- To protect life by putting a stream between the fire and the occupants.

- To protect exposures.

- To confine the fire.

- To diminish heavy fire so that an interior attack can be made.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

Who is the only person that can order the use of outside streams at MD fires?

Only the Incident Commander may order the use of outside streams. This may be the officer arriving first. For example, the IC may order the deckpipe used for a store fire.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - MULTIPLE DWELLING FIRES
General: Non-Fireproof Multiple Dwellings

The use of outside streams into a building can cause injuries to members operating inside the building. Members inside the building must be warned, and moved to safe location before outside streams are directed into the building. This safe location must be verified by _____________ or _____________, by the ______________ of the fire.

The use of outside streams into a building can cause injuries to members operating inside the building. Members inside the building must be warned, and moved to safe location before outside streams are directed into the building. This safe location must be verified by RADIO or PERSONAL CONTACT, by the INCIDENT COMMANDER of the fire.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-GENERAL

Engine companies with lines in exposures can extinguish a great deal of fire in the fire building by operating across a shaft. However, this should not be done without permission of the ____________ as it may drive the fire at members advancing from the interior.

INCIDENT COMMANDER

Engine companies with lines in exposures can extinguish a great deal of fire in the fire building by operating across a shaft. However, this should not be done without permission of the INCIDENT COMMANDER as it may drive the fire at members advancing from the interior.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-GENERAL

The absence of a fire escape on the front of an OLT will usually indicate that the apartments are _____________.

RAILROAD FLATS

The absence of a fire escape on the front of an OLT will usually indicate that the apartments are RAILROAD FLATS.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- CELLAR FIRES

Where is the 1st line stretched for a CELLAR FIRE in an OLT?

The first line should be stretched to the cellar entrance door which is located inside the building, under the interior stairway on the first floor.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- CELLAR FIRES

Why is the 1st line stretched to the cellar entrance door at a OLT CELLAR FIRE?

- protection for people coming down interior stair

- extinguish fire that be extending upwards from partitions, dumbwaiter shafts, and other voids.

31

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- CELLAR FIRES

Where is the 2nd hoseline stretched for OLT CELLAR FIRES?

The second hoseline stretched should be advanced into the cellar by way of the front or rear entrance to the cellar.

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- CELLAR FIRES

Why do OLT cellar fires quickly spread to the upper parts of the building?

OLTs do not have the advantage of a fireproof cellar ceiling such as is found in buildings erected at a later date. This spread of fire may be via combustible ceilings, partitions, shafts, pipe recesses and other voids.

33

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- STORE FIRES

Store fires in OLTs may involve a large amount of combustible material. A _____" line should be stretched for large volume fires and a second line stretched to the _____________.

Store fires in OLTs may involve a large amount of combustible material. A 2 ½" line should be stretched for large volume fires and a second line stretched to the ENTRANCE HALLWAY.

34

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- STORE FIRES

Where does the 2nd line go, when not needed on the first floor, for a OLT store fire?

2nd line advanced to floor above

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FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- STORE FIRES

TRUE/FALSE

Stores in OLTs may have a door which opens into the public hallway on the first floor. The first floor public hallway should be examined immediately to determine whether the means of egress for the occupants of the building is in danger from the store fire. If so, a hoseline should be positioned to protect the interior stairs.

TRUE

36

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- APARTMENT FIRES

It can be expected that fire will extend upwards in OLT apartment fires by way of?

- pipe recesses
- partitions
- flooring
- shafts
- various hidden voids.

**This is particularly important in Old Law Tenements due to many bathroom alterations.**

37

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- APARTMENT FIRES

What should the roof firefighter report as soon as possible during an OLT apartment fire?

The roof firefighter, especially, should report as soon as possible the layout of shafts between buildings and whether there is any fire visible in these shafts.

38

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- STAIRWAY FIRES

Where is the first hoseline stretched for OLT stairway fires?

The first hoseline should be stretched up the stairway, operated to extinguish fire, shut down and advanced further up the stairway. When possible, the line should be operated up the wellhole to cool off the hall and stairs above. This procedure should be repeated until line is advanced to the top floor. A second line should follow to finish up extinguishing operations and to serve as protection for members advancing the first line. Apartments must be checked for possible extension of fire in them.

39

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- STAIRWAY FIRES

What is an important factor for hoseline advancement in an OLT stairway fire?

Ventilation at the roof over the stairway is extremely important so that hoseline can advance up the stairway.

40

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- TOP FLOOR FIRES

TRUE/FALSE

Cockloft areas of OLT's are much smaller than those in NLT's and therefore are not as much of a problem. It may be necessary to cut a trench in the roof of an OLT in order to prevent the spread of fire but usually such fires are extinguished from below after an adequate ventilation hole is cut over the fire.

TRUE

41

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS- TOP FLOOR FIRES

TRUE/FALSE

The entire top floor does not have to be thoroughly searched and examined because of the superior fire stopping in these buildings

FALSE

**The entire top floor must be thoroughly searched and examined because of the lack of fire stopping in these buildings**

42

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-MISCELLANEOUS

Is collapse usually a problem at OLT fires?

No

- the short span of floor beams-25', and the fact that the floors are not heavily loaded, the collapse of floors in OLT's is usually not a problem.

- instances of collapse or partial collapse of floors have generally occurred when there were previous fires and the floor beams were badly burned.

43

Any indication of collapse in an OLT fire - i.e _________, ___________, or ____________ - the _____________ must immediately be notified.

plaster ceilings falling, floors or ceilings sagging, and unusual creaking noises.

Incident commander must be notified.

44

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-MISCELLANEOUS


At fires in OLT's the danger of spread of fire to exposed buildings is great. Exposures _____ & _______ are in greatest danger because they are usually closer to the fire building and if they also are OLT's then the layout of the shafts between the buildings make it easy for fire to spread to the adjoining buildings.

Exposures 2 & 4

45

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-MISCELLANEOUS

If an OLT is a SRO, what is the building required to have?

- layout of the rooms must be arranged so that each occupant has access to both means of egress (stairs and fire escape) without having to go through another person's room.

- sprinklers in each room and in the stairway. The sprinkler system has no roof tank; it is supplied from the water main in the street. The system cannot be supplied by the Fire Department.

- interior alarm system to warn the occupants of fire. Exit lights and signs must be provided.

46

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-MISCELLANEOUS

There is a severe life hazard in OLT fires, where must particular attention be played regardless of the fires location?

Particular attention must be directed to an initial search of the top floor apartments. Regardless of the fire location within the building, a substantial fire will tend to create a heavy smoke build-up in these top floor apartments.

47

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-MISCELLANEOUS

What are some problems associated with party wall balconies?

- firefighters cannot use the fire escape to go from one floor to another floor for ventilation and search procedures

- fire escape cannot be used to gain access to roof

- fire escape cannot be used for stretching lines

- demolition of adjoining building remove means of egress into other building for fleeing occupants

- danger of locked or barred gates preventing occupants from using other side of balcony

- occupants of other balcony mistaking people for intruders

48

FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES - OLT
OPERATIONS-MISCELLANEOUS

Who must the roof firefighter inform when there are party wall balconies in the rear of the building?

Their officer and the incident commander

49

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

The "H" type design of residence buildings differs from the older tenements and the newer high rise multiple dwellings in that there are three structural elements to support the structure:

Masonry bearing walls, wood beams that support floors and roof, and structural steel columns, beams and girders that connect and support sections of the "H" type building.

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CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

Structural steel in "H" types creat 3 concerns for the fire department?

Steel when heated expands, and substantial elongation can occur at a fire. This elongation can cause a wall to bulge, move, or even collapse if the steel is set within the wall.

Steel when heated to higher temperatures during a fire may fail. Floor beams supported by such failing steel will fall to the floor below.

Steel columns or girders, generally in an "I" beam shape, transmit fire and heat. The "I" beam or channel rail, as it is sometimes called, when in the form of a column located in the inner framework of a building may extend from the first floor up into the roof space or cockloft area. The space between the enclosing wood framework and "I" beam, when in the form of a vertical column, leads up into the cockloft and many times spreads to this roof space.

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CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

What is the most common roof in "H" types?

The most common roof has the top floor ceiling several feet below the main roof beams. The roof boards are fastened directly to the top of the roof beams. This provides for a sturdy roof.

52

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

How is the inverted, raised or reversed roof constructed?

In the inverted, raised or reversed roof the main roof beams are at the ceiling level and a framework is raised above these beams with the roof boards attached. This roof is normally springy but it permits the roof to be pitched so that water will run off.

53

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

What are transverse stairs?

Stairs that are usually located remote from one another, where a person can go from one stairway to another via the public hall on all floors of the building

**tremendous assets to the fire service**

54

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

What are wing stairs?

Stairs either one or two are located at the front and rear of each wing - the floor landing leads to he public hall that will join the stairs (if two stairs present in wing).

**the public hall does NOT transverse to the other wing of the "H".**

55

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

What are isolated stairs?

- identified by their individual entrances

- floor landings recognized by limited space and absence of public hall

- access limited to apartments served by stairs

- no access to other wings

56

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

Once stair layout is recognized, what must be done?

This information must be transmitted over handie-talkie.

57

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

TRUE/FALSE

Channel rails in "H" types are fire stopped.

FALSE

**Our main concern is that they are not fire stopped. This provides a chimney effect for fire travel from the first floor to all apartments above and to the cockloft.**

58

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

When the fire is knocked down and opening up begins, areas where the lath has been burned must be examined for the presence of these columns. If detected, what must be done next?

If detected, locations above the fire must be checked immediately.

59

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

What must be done if the roof man on the roof detects heat from a pipe recess?

If the pipe is hot to the touch a top floor examination is required and notification made to officer and the IC.

60

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

Closest are usually built back to back, this may lead to ________________ extension of fire.

Horizontal and vertical extension of fire.

61

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

Once the fire floor has been identified, this shall be known as the ____________.

Fire Floor Sector

**The Supervisor assigned to this sector will be identified as Fire Floor Sector Supervisor.**

62

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

What is the supervisor assigned to the floors above, known as?

Floor(s) Above Sector Supervisor

63

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

How is entry to the rear yard accessed?

- passageways from the street

- interior doors located in first floor public hallway

64

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES

The cellar ceiling is of ___________ construction. Openings below the first floor for pipes, conduits, ducts, dumbwaiter and elevator shafts, must be protected by fireproof doors and assemblies and such doors must be self-closing. Entrance to the cellar is by ___________ stairs.

FIREPROOF

EXTERIOR

The cellar ceiling is of FIREPROOF construction. Openings below the first floor for pipes, conduits, ducts, dumbwaiter and elevator shafts, must be protected by fireproof doors and assemblies and such doors must be self-closing. Entrance to the cellar is by EXTERIOR stairs.

65

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - ENGINE OPS

What is of vital importance before a line is committed in an "H" type building?

It is of vital importance that, before a line is committed in an "H" type building, the exact location of the fire be determined. Care must be taken to avoid using a wrong stairway. Determine if the wings are connected above the first floor. Communication is essential. You must know where you are going before you start.

66

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - ENGINE OPS

TRUE/FALSE

All available engine companies, in an "H" type building fire should be used to stretch the 1st line.

TRUE

**Every effort must be made to get the first line in operation before additional lines are stretched. All available engine companies should be used to stretch the first line.**

67

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - ENGINE OPS

In "H" type buildings, some stairs wrap around elevator shafts. Instead of stretched around these shafts, what is alternative method for hoseline stretch?

Instead of stretching around the elevator shaft, it is much easier and faster to use a rope to pull the hoseline up to the FLOOR BELOW the fire via the outside of the building, then up the interior stairs to the fire floor. The stairway windows, if available, can be used for this purpose. When this stretch is made, the location of the fire must be definitely known in order to be certain that the line will be brought into the building on the floor below the fire.

68

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - LADDER OPS

What is the most important responsibility of the first ladder company to arrive at a fire in an "H" type?

The rapid location of the fire and determination of if it is and where it is extending to.

69

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - LADDER OPS

Where should aerial ladders be placed at "H" type fires?

Aerial ladders, if first to arrive, should not be positioned so as to block off the front entrance courtyard. When possible, this position should be taken by a tower ladder. If rescue operations must be performed, the aerial shall, of course, be positioned to carry out this function.

70

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - LADDER OPS

If a tower ladder stream is to be used, what is the correct method of stream direction?

tower ladder stream should be directed at the windows in the throat first. The stream then should be advanced toward the front of the building and finally operated into the front windows.

71

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - LADDER OPS

TRUE/FALSE

When conditions indicate roof operations the aerial is initially raised to the roof for roof access of OVM and roof firefighter.

TRUE

**When conditions indicate roof operations (top floor fire, shaft fire, two floors involved, heavy fire condition, etc.) the aerial may initially be raised to the roof for rapid ascent of the roof and outside vent firefighter.**

72

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - LADDER OPS

What are the primary means of getting to the roof in an "H" type?

Primary means of getting to the roof would be winged or isolated stairways in the same building or in the adjoining building IF FEASIBLE.

73

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - LADDER OPS

Can the aerial be used to vent windows?

YES

Upon permission of ladder officer working in the area to be vented

Once the windows are vented the aerial should be returned to the roof. It can be used as a means of escape for members operating on the roof.

74

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - BATTALION CHIEFS

For a medium fire condition, that is when two lines will be required, what should the battalion chief do?

Special call an extra engine and truck

75

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - BATTALION CHIEFS

At extensive COCKLOFT fires or when two stories are involved, what should the battalion chief transmit?

2nd alarm

76

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - COMMUNICATIONS

The first arriving officer on the fire floor ("H" type fire) shall transmit what:

Location of the fire apartment: (Wing, Floor, Apartment No.)
Number of apartments on the floor of the fire wing.
Fire conditions: (Fire out in public hall, heavy smoke condition)
Access: Location of stairway in fire wing closest to fire apartment. Report if it is possible to go from one wing to another above the first floor. (Transverse, wing or isolated stairs)
Fire extension: Whether fire is extending and how it is extending. Need and location for additional lines. (Fire floor or floor above adjacent apartment). Give reasons.
Difficulties or delays in gaining entrance to fire apartment or in advancing line. Give reasons.
Occupants: If occupants have been located and are accounted for. (This information may be obtained from one of the occupants or from a neighbor).

77

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
GENERAL OPS - COMMUNICATIONS

The Roof firefighter ("H" type fire) shall transmit what (to the incident commander or their officer):

- configuration of the building, "H", "E", "U", etc.
- Fire showing out windows (number and location) which are not visible from the street and whether any exposure is affected.
- Color and volume of smoke coming from windows.
- Persons trapped and their exact location.
- Location of stairways and fire escapes.
- If the building fronts on more than one street. Whether there is access for apparatus. Whether it is a street, alleyway, parking lot, vacant lot, etc.
- Whether there is any difference in the height of the building from street to street, or from front or rear, or from side to side.
- Evidence of unusual heat, smoke or fire in the cockloft, if fire has burned through roof. Need for additional saws.
- Location of parapet and dividing walls.
- Any other information that will be relevant to aid operations.

78

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - STORE FIRE

If the 1st line is stretched into the store, where is the second line stretched at a store fire in a "H" type building?

The second line should be used to back up the first line. When it is obvious that the first line can control the store fire, the second line should be advanced to the floor above the fire. If two lines are needed in the store, the third line shall be stretched to the floor above.

79

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - STORE FIRE

Duties of the 1st arriving ladder company?

-forcible entry to store
- check rear of store for possible extension into public areas of building
- quick opening of ceilings and voids.

80

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - STORE FIRE

What are the duties of the 2nd due ladder company?

floor above for forcible entry and search for life and extension.

**Areas larger than the actual size of the store must be checked due to the possibility of horizontal travel of fire as well as smoke. These buildings have a peculiarity in that many times a fire will bypass intermediate areas both vertically and horizontally and then when an obstruction is met will set fire to the surrounding material.**

81

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - STORE FIRE

How can fire spread in store fires in "H" types?

- spread to adjoining stores by way of spaces between the ceiling joists or by openings in walls for pipes, ducts and wiring.

- extend upward in pipe recesses and vertical steel columns, to the cockloft, possibly bypassing intermediate floors. The top floor and cockloft must be promptly checked and rechecked at a later time.

82

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - STORE FIRE

Should engines use deck pipes or large caliber streams at "H" type store fires?

Yes

**Deckpipes on engines may have to be used momentarily to drive fire back into store or to protect people on fire escapes. A quick dash from this large caliber stream may make a tremendous difference in not only protecting life but in quick extinguishment of the fire.**

83

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - CELLAR FIRE

Is the cellar of an "H" type fire protected?

YES

Fireproof construction throughout cellar. Cellar ceiling-concrete and rated at two hour fire resistance.

84

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - CELLAR FIRE

Where is the 1st line stretched?

The first line is stretched by way of the usually numerous exterior approaches to seat of fire and extinguish.

**First Ladder provides forcible entry and search of cellar to locate fire and search for life.**

85

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - CELLAR FIRE

For a cellar fire in an "H" type, where does the roof firefight go?

Roof firefighter to the roof for vent and examination

**checks COCKLOFT for possible extension through vertical voids.**

86

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - CELLAR FIRE

"H" type cellars are considerably different than OLT cellars...what is one major difference?

Numerous ground level windows are usually available at sides and rear, a considerable difference from Old Law Tenements. Due to this they are more easily vented and also provide alternate points of attack if interior attack is very arduous for the engine company.

87

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TOP FLOOR/COCKLOFT FIRES

Can an officer be assigned as the roof sector supervisor?

YES

**It is imperative for the IC to assign a roof sector supervisor early into the operation. The IC shall designate a company officer as the roof supervisor until a chief officer can be assigned. Once a sector supervisor is assigned all communications between the roof and the IC shall go though that roof sector supervisor.**

88

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TOP FLOOR/COCKLOFT FIRES

What is the recommended size cut hole for roof ventilation?

- a 3' x 6' coffin cut is recommended.

- Two saws should be put into operation promptly to prevent lateral spread of fire in the cockloft.

89

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TOP FLOOR/COCKLOFT FIRES

TRUE/FALSE

At these cockloft fires it is very important to have the ceilings pulled to expose the fire. Sufficient firefighters with hooks must be assigned to pull these ceilings. At times it may be necessary to assign engine companies or individual engine firefighters to pull ceilings. A charged line must be in readiness to extinguish exposed fire.

TRUE

90

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TOP FLOOR/COCKLOFT FIRES

One of the most serious problems at these cockloft fires is to determine the extent of the fire. To accomplish this it will be necessary to get all apartments open on the top floor, make openings to find the extent of the fire, get ________of the fire and work __________ to the original fire area.

AHEAD
BACK

One of the most serious problems at these cockloft fires is to determine the extent of the fire. To accomplish this it will be necessary to get all apartments open on the top floor, make openings to find the extent of the fire, get AHEAD of the fire and work BACK to the original fire area.

91

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TOP FLOOR/COCKLOFT FIRES

TRUE/FALSE

Fire stopping at top floor/COCKLOFT fires in "H" type multiple dwelling can be dependent on.

FALSE

Fire stopping in the cockloft cannot be depended on. Cocklofts may be undivided, as in the case when fire partitions only come up to the underside of the roof beams, or there may be openings in the fire stopping because of poor workmanship.

**attached building if built at same time must also be checked for extension**

92

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TRENCHING

Trenching a roof is a ___________ operation that is performed to limit the extension of fire in the cockloft.

Trenching a roof is a DEFENSIVE operation that is performed to limit the extension of fire in the cockloft.

93

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TRENCHING

A trench may be cut but __________ be opened until there is an adequate vent opening directly over the fire. Ideally, the trench should be precut, but not pulled. _________ inspection holes may be cut on the fire side of the trench. When, and if, the fire reaches the inspection holes, the precut trench is __________.

A trench may be cut but SHOULD NOT be opened until there is an adequate vent opening directly over the fire. Ideally, the trench should be precut, but not pulled. TWO OR MORE inspection holes may be cut on the fire side of the trench. When, and if, the fire reaches the inspection holes, the precut trench IS PULLED.

94

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TRENCHING

What is the width of the trench?

At least 3ft wide

95

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TRENCHING

At what distance should the trench be cut from the initial vent hole?

About 20ft

96

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TRENCHING

TRUE/FALSE

Depend on firewalls constructed within the structure. If the fire is heavy, and the first trench cut appears doubtful continue with the trench cut as it is a sure-fire way of stopping an advancing fire in a COCKLOFT.

FALSE

DO NOT depend on firewalls constructed within the structure. If the fire is heavy, and the first trench cut appears doubtful to stop the spread of fire, or if during the trenching operation there are indications of fire existing in the cockloft beneath you, then retreat and start a second trench a greater distance from your previous position even if this means giving up the entire wing. If fire does not pass the trench your mission was successful.

97

CLASS "A" NON-FIREPROOF MULTIPLE DWELLINGS BUILT AFTER 4/12/01 TO PRESENT - "H" TYPES
OPERATIONS - TRENCHING

Why is a charged line brought up to the roof in"H" type fires that involve trenching?

- A charged line should be in position on the roof to protect personnel and the trench opening.

- This line may be operated into the trench in a brief sweeping side to side motion to prevent fire from extending across the cockloft.

- Such operations should only be conducted after adequate precautions are taken to prevent injury to interior operating forces.

Decks in Undeleted Class (130):