GI- Antacids and Antiulcers Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology & Drugs > GI- Antacids and Antiulcers > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI- Antacids and Antiulcers Deck (49):
1

Aluminum, calcium and magnesium based agents are considered what level of systemic levels

Low systemic

2

Sodium based agents are considered what levels of systemic agents

High systemic

3

What is the mechanism of action for antacids

Combine with already secreted hydrogen, but in no way affects the amount that is produced or secreted

4

What are the characteristics of calcium antacids

Rapid onset, long duration, with very good neutralizing ability

5

What are the characteristics of aluminum antacids

Slow onset, short duration and weak neutralizing

6

What are the characteristics of magnesium antacids

Rapid onset, long duration and good neutralizing ability

7

What are the characteristics of sodium antacids

Rapid onset, short duration, with fair neutralizing

8

What is the mechanism of action of simethicone

A surfactant that decreased surface tension and aids in expulsion of gas

9

What are the side effects of aluminum

Constipations and hypophosphatemia

10

What are the side effects of magnesium

Diarrhea and hypermagnesium

11

What are the side effects of calcium

Constipation, kidney stones, hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia

12

Are antacids used in combination

yes

13

What is the protocol on administration of antacids and what is the reason

Lots of interactions, so taken 1-2 hours before all other medication and 2-4 hours after

14

What is the drug class of drugs ending in -tidine

H2 receptor antagonists

15

What is the drug class of drugs for drugs ending in -prazole

PPI

16

What class of drug is cimetidine

H2 antagonist

17

What class of drug is famotidine

H2 receptor antagonist

18

What class of drug is nizatidine

H2 receptor antagonist

19

What class of drug is ranitidine

H2 receptor antagonist

20

What class of drug is lanzoprazole

PPI

21

What class of drug is dexlansoprazole

PPI

22

What class of drug is omeprazole

PPI

23

What class of drug is esomeprazole

PPI

24

What class of drug is pantoprazole

PPI

25

What class of drug is Rabeprazole

PPI

26

What class of drug is misoprostol

PGE1 analogs

27

What is the mechanism of action of histamine type 2 blockers

Inhibits the H2 receptors and decreases the production of acid production by 20-50%

28

What are the adverse effects of histamine type 2 blockers

N/D/C
-Headaches

29

Which serious side effect is seen in administration of cimetidine

Decreases testosterone binding, so gynecomastia in men, galactorrhea in women

30

What enzymatic interaction does cimetidine have

Prototypical inhibator of CYP450s

31

What are the contraindications to histamine type 2 blockers

Pregnancy

32

Which histame type 2 blocker is the only one that can be given to pregnant women

Ranitidine

33

What is the mechanism of action of PPIs

Inhibition on the potassium/hydrogen ATPase that puts acid in to the lumen of the stomach

34

What are the adverse effects of PPI

Clostridium difficile assoacited diarrhea

35

What is the enzymatic interaction of omeprazole

CYP450 inhibators

36

What are the contraindications of PPI

Pregnant women

37

Which PPI can be given to pregnant women

Lasnoprazole

38

What is the mechanism of sucralfate

Creates a viscous coat that can cover an ulcer

39

What are the complications of sucralfate

Severe renal failure due to the aluminum

40

What is the mechanism of action for misoprostol

Prostaglandin analog that provides protection to mucosa and decreases gastric acid release a

41

When is misoprostol used

Prevention of NSAID induced gastric ulceration

42

What are the contraindications in mismatch compounds

Contains SAS, so look for allergy and Anticoagulant factors first

43

What is the combination that is a must in the treatment of H. Pylori

At least 2 antibiotics with an acid reducer (PPI or H2 blocker)

44

What is the triple therapy in the treatment of H pylori

PPI
Clarithromycin
Amoxicillin or metronidazole

45

What is the quadrupple therapy for H. Pylori

PPI
Metronidazole
Tetracyclines
Bismuth

46

What is the drug substitution for H pylori treatment in a patients with penicillin allergy

Substitute metronidazole

47

What is the drug substitution for H pylori treatment in a patients with metronidazole resistance

Tetracyclines

48

What is the drug substitution for H pylori treatment in a patients with clarithromycin resistance

Amoxicillin or tetracycline

49

In a pregnant patient without H pylori but PUD, what is the treatment

Short course of antacids or sucralfate (mild case)
Ranitidine (moderate)
Lansoprazole (severe)