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Flashcards in Government Notes Quiz Deck (32)
1

Politics

Process (how it's done) by which it is determined by those in authority as to who gets what, when, and how (the authoritative allocation of scarce resources)

The how

2

Government

The institutions (authority) that actually determine who gets what, when, and how (by making public policy)

3

Public policy

Decisions (rules) or non-decisions made by govt to settle political issues

What govt decides to do

Govt choice

4

Political issues

An issue that arises out of conflict between the people about a political problem and how to fix it

5

Policy agenda

Those policy items that govt officials decide to address

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Political values

Those elements (ideas/core beliefs) which guide a person's decisions regarding public policy

7

Study the policy making process chart

YOU GOT THIS!!!

8

Linkage institution

Political, non-governmental institution created to help channel the people's concerns (polit. issues) onto the policy agenda

Ex: elections, campaign polit. Parties, the MEDIA, interest groups

9

Policy agenda

Political issues that attract attention of govt officials and other polit actors (set by govt. policy makers, but influenced by linkage institutions ESP. MEDIA)

10

Policy making institutions

(Government) those in branches of govt at state and federal level

Ex: congress, pres, courts, the federal bureaucracy, state legislatures, governors, etc

11

Types of policy: who decides?
What's bureaucracy?

Congressional laws

Govt budget decisions by congress/pres
-expenditure plans (aka appropriations)
-tax plans (aka revenues)

Presidential decisions (executive orders, executive agreements, etc.)

Bureaucratic agency rules
-bureaucracy:the executive agencies that actually carry out work of the govt

12

Enlightenment:

Euro movement that advocated use of logic and reason to find natural laws that regulate human society to reform society by creating better social institutions.

13

Enlightenment beliefs:

Democracy
Liberty (freedom)
Equality of opportunity
Importance of checking self-interest

14

State of nature

People are naturally free and equal, but this freedom inevitably leads to inequality and chaos

15

Natural law

In natural state men are ruled by laws of nature
-innate moral laws
-stronger than human (govt) law

16

Natural rights

Life, liberty, property

Arise out of this natural law

17

Self interest

A natural characteristic of man; cause of inequality and chaos (threatens natural rights) changes s.o.n

18

Consent of the governed (social contract)

People willingly give up some freedom (consent) to form govts to protect natural rights forming a contract between ppl and govt

19

Right to revolt

Occurs when govt breaks contract

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Limited govt

In order to honor its contract, power of govt, must be restricted so that it does only those things citizens allow

21

Democracy

All authority rests with people

Govt expresses will of people

22

Direct democracy

Ppl make and vote on laws directly themselves

23

Representative (indirect) democracy

Ppl. Vote a small group of people (representatives) to make a vote on laws

24

Dictatorship

1 person or small group of people have political authority

Those who rule aren't responsible to will of ppl

25

Autocracy

1 person holds all power (military dictator, absolute monarch)

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Oligarchy

Small group holds all power

27

Republic

A elected govt limited by rule of law

28

All repl. Democracies are

Republics

29

Traditional theory of democracy
Problem?

1. Citizen control of agenda through majority rule and representative (majoritarianism)
- minority always loses
2. Equality in voting
3. Effective in participation (all citizens participate)
4. Enlightened understanding (society marketplace of ideas and citizens understand political issues)
5. Inclusion (minority rights are protected from abuse by majority) biggest concern of framers

30

Pluralist theory

Emphasizes politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies

Similar groups will work together (form majorities)

Public interest will prevail

31

Elite and class theory

Societies are divided along class lines and upper middle elite will rule, regardless of formal niceties of governmental organization

Not all groups equal

Policies benefit those with money/power

32

Hyper pluralism

Groups are so strong that government is weakened

Exaggerated form of pluralism

Results in:
Confusing/contradictory policies
Gridlock: inability to act at all