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Flashcards in Russian Revolution Test Deck (11)

Why were Russian peasants and workers restless by end of 19th century

Ww1 -immediate cause
Lack of food and supplies
Military defeats
Massive casualties


What were the causes and effects of Bloody Sunday

1. Rapid industrialization (caused radicalization of workers, caused social problems )
2. Russo-japanese war 1905 ( loss caused embarrassment, caused shortages)

1.Workers rev., riots, strikes, in all major cities
2.Soviets (worker unions) organized in major cities
3.Rev leaders arrested, exiled, or executed
4.Czar began to lose people's trust and loyalty
5.A Duma (russia parliament) formed, but quickly disbanded by czar when it supported constitutional monarchy
6.For rev people must lose trust in leader (1st event where this happens)


Explain impact of ww1 on Russian rev of 1917

1. Lack of food and supplies
2. Military defeats
3. Massive casualties (all led to Bloody Sunday which led to feb or March rev)
4. Shortage of bread (from rationing because of war) caused women of st Petersburg to protest
5. Provisional govt decides to continue ww1 and launch an offensive against Germans


Compare and contrast Russian feb and October rev of 1917

1.Occurred in st Petersburg
2.Were caused by Russian involvement in ww1
3. Resulted in a change in Russian govt.
4. In 1917

Contrast :
1.Feb: spontaneous , October. : planned
2. Feb.: leaderless, oct.: led by Lenin /Bolsheviks
3. Feb.: caused czar to abdicate, oct.: caused fall of provisional govt. (kerensky/ Duma )
4. Feb. : resulted in democ govt, October: resulted in oligarchy
5. Feb. :Maintained a capitalist economy, October.: resulted in Marxist (communist ) state with a controlled (command ) economy
6. Feb: resulting govt led by Duma/kerensky, oct: resulting govt led by the soviet, controlled by Lenin and later Stalin
7. Feb: continued ww1, oct.: ended ww1
8. Oct: caused Russian civil war


ID the caused and effects of Russian civil war

1. Oct rev (Bolsheviks take power)
2. Red army: supporters of Lenin ,led by Trotsky
White army- all groups against Lenin and Trotsky(very diverse : former military leaders, nobles, supporters of czar, constitutional monarchists, supporters of democ. (Supported by ww1 allies)

Results: 1.white army lost bc they refused to coordinate actions
2. War cost 14 million Russian lives (most from starvation)
3. NEP (lenins new economic policy March 1921), allowed peasants to keep and sell surplus crops (capitalist), placed all major industries and banks unde govt control (socialists)
Political changes:
4. Organized russia into several republics, all under control of communist party, renamed Russia Soviet Union (each republic ruled by local soviet which took directives from at Petersburg soviet,
5.moved capital to Moscow)
6. 1924- Lenin dies (stroke) ( stalin became comm party leader after power struggle with Trotsky, Trotsky exiled)


Compare and contrast policies of Lenin and Marx

Compare: history story of class struggle
Contrast: 1.Marx: struggle between capitalists and proletariat (workers), Lenin: struggle between capitalists against proletariat and peasants
2. Marx :Proletariats numbers so great and conditions so poor a spontaneous rev would occur, Lenin : proletariat and peasants not capable of leading revolution and needed guidance of professional rev
3. Marx:Revolution would end with "dictatorship of the proletariat " or communal ownership of wealth, Lenin : after rev state needs to be run by a single party with displined, centrally directed administrators in order to ensure its goals


Compare and contrast changes to soviet govt and economy undertaken by Lenin and Stalin

1.communist party
2. Secret police

Contrast: Lenin:
1.Signed peace treaty with germany and gave Germany 1/3 population, 1/4 of territory 1/2 industry
2. NEP

Contrast Stalin :
1.communist command economy
2. 5 year plans for industry (production centered on producing coal, steal, electricity (heavy industry))
3. Very little focus on consumer goods (led to consumer shortages)
4. Large number of factories created (especially in east )
5. Successfully raised production (but never achieved govt targets)
6. Collective farms (govt owned farms on which peasants work for wages, peasant lands confiscated and given to govt, peasant resistance, famine, and govt use of food as a weapon for compliance caused millions to die in 1st few years, by mid 1930s the policy was producing results


Describe elements of totalitarian govt

1. Strong dynamic leadership: leader given cult like status(leader -the state)
2. Dictatorship of one party rule
3. Restriction of individual rights ( restrict views that oppose state , speech, expression)
4. Use of govt sponsored terror and violence (create police state, supress any acts that conflicts with states policy
5. Rigid state sponsored ideology (goals of state outlined outlined as midst import., govt control of mass mediA, govt use or pirpoganfa and censorship
6. Indoctrination - instruction of state ideology through govt control of school, govt sponsored youth groups
7. Persecution of all dissenting views
8. Religious and ethnic persecution (need for scapegoat to blame for govt problems /failures, create atmosphere of fear(unite citizens) , must end religious belief to promote leader and state worship


How did Stalin implement totalitarian govt in Soviet Union

1. Police state
2. Great purge -a campaign on terror to remove anyone who was a threat to his power , estimates of 8-13 million dead
3. Govt control of all sources of information and expression (communist party newspaper )
4. Govt creation and complete control of a public school system (nursery school to university)
5. Persecution of all religious groups (esp Greek Orthodox)
6. Elimination of all personal rights and freedoms


ID the effects of Stalins command economy on Russia

1. Industrial production of coal and steel grew drastically
2. After initial setbacks, agriculture production grew by mid 1930s
3. Women gained equality with men but forced to dual roles as workers and homemakers /mothers
4. Educational opportunities increased for all
5. Loss of basic freedoms of choice
6. Decrease of creativity and initiative in Russia society and workforce
7. Millions die during move toward collectivism and the great purge
8. Constant shortages of consumer goods and few choices


How did russia differ from Western Europe politically, socially, and economically

Least industrialized

Most autocratic and least liberal euro govts
Czar Nicholas 2- weak and indecisive (Rasputin -corrupt)

Unrest among lower classes (rev movements)
Urban social problems caused by attempts at industrialization
Peasants with few rights and little land (80%)