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Flashcards in Unit 2 Test Deck (106)
1

What's ideology

A coherent set of beliefs and values concerning public policy

2

Conservatives tend to structure government in favor of the

"Haves"

3

Liberals tend to structure government in favor of the

"Have nots"

4

Group consciousness

Idea that some disadvantage groups participate at a higher rate than their socioeconomic factors generally predict because of a perceived benefit for their group

5

Who has the strongest group consciousness?

African Americans

6

Religiosity

Degree religion is impt to a person

7

Most conservative demographic group in US

Evangelicals (Christian Fundamentalists)

8

Fastest growing minority group in America based on rate of growth

Asian Americans

9

Poll taken on Election Day as people leave polls

Exit poll

10

Who pays for exit polls? Why?

Media
-predict election winners
-examine issues and voter turnout to explain elections

11

Constitution calls for enumeration of the population (a census) every - years

10

12

Faster growing age group in America

Over 65

13

Most accurate poll

Random sample

14

Least accurate poll

Straw poll

15

Region of the country that seems to be gaining largest proportion of population

South west

16

Accurate sample representation of nation for a poll

1000-1500

17

Larger representation of a poll-accurate the poll tends to be

More

18

Poll question "do you believe voting is an important duty?" Attempting to measure - efficacy

Internal efficacy

19

US census is - requirement
(Formal or informal)

Formal

20

Largest minority group in US today?

Hispanics

21

Margin of error of - is usually accepted as standard of accuracy for a random sample poll

(+,-) 3

22

A poll which you choose to take on a website is an example of

Straw poll

23

Which demographic trend will impact reapportionment?

Growth of sunbelt

24

Which agent of socialization has most impact on policy agenda

Media

25

Which agent of socialization has most impact on person's political values

Family

26

Which agent of socialization has most effect on installing values of civic duty and political tolerance

Schools

27

Exit polls can only take place

On election days

28

A push poll is

Not a poll at all

29

One of the most important constitutions of polling to democracy is

Linkage

30

What's political culture

A set of widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the ways that political culture and economic life ought to be carried out in society

31

What are the American core values (7)

Liberty, equality, individualism (rugged individualism), democracy, rule of law, civic duty, political tolerance

32

What's rugged individualism?

Individuals are responsible for their own well-being and strength of our system lies in ability of individual to compete (born out of frontier heritage, conservative value)

Individual needs to be as self-sufficient as possible

33

What's weakest core value

Political tolerance

34

2nd weakest core value?

Civic duty

35

Americans have a higher degree of - than Europeans even though they are less likely to vote

Efficacy

36

Americans tend to participate more in the form of (3)

Political discussion
Community involvement
Petitions

37

Vast majority of Americans agree with (in abstract) all - values

1st amendment

38

Most Americans dislike some groups strongly enough to

Especially true of those on the -

Deny them some rights

Opposite end of the political spectrum (i.e. Ultra conservatives to radical liberals)

39

Political tolerance has - over recent decades

Grown

40

Free enterprise

Laissez faire

41

Americans tend to vote - rather than knowledge

Values

42

What are exceptions to decline in trust in govt institutions?

Military and Supreme Court

Military-increased
Supreme Court- remained the same

43

Must have - to have -

(Efficacy)

Internal , external

44

Internal efficacy

Understand and take part in political affairs

45

External efficacy

Belief of individuals that govt will respond to his/her personal needs

46

Very little decline of - in 50 years

Internal efficacy

47

Political efficacy

Sense of citizens to underhand and influence political events

48

Political socialization

Lifelong process through which individual acquires political opinions and attitudes

49

2 rules of socialization

What is learned first is best
What is learned first structures what is learned later

50

Most impt agent of socialization

Family

51

When does family socialization begin?

10-11 years old

52

More politically active parents-and -the political party

More politically active their children and the stronger the party loyalty

53

Other informal agent of socialization

Mass media

54

- displaces parents as chief source of info as children get older

Mass media

55

Trend: young adults - search out political news

Do not

56

Average news viewing age:

58

57

Mass media shapes - more than political attitudes

Shapes policy agenda

58

What does govt use schools for?

Promote core values (esp civic duty and political tolerance)

59

More educated a person: (2)

More likely to
Vote
Tolerate opposing views

60

Weak agent

Peer groups (friends, classmates, coworkers, neighbors) regularly associate

61

Historical events

Agent of socialization
Like (Great Depression, WWII, etc) have generational effect, long lasting and profound effect

62

Public opinion

The distribution of the populations beliefs about politics and political issues (at a given moment in time)

Snapshot in time

63

Straw polls (8)

1. 1st type
2. Call in/website poll
3. For feedback only
4. Least accurate
5. Unscientific
6. Nationwide
7. Only callers are those that feel strongly about it
8. Ppl can vote more than once

64

Random sample (scientific polling) (8)

1. Scientific
2. Representative sample
3. Margin of error +-3
4. Usual sample : 1000-1500
5. Larger sample-greater accuracy
6. Base samples of demographic profile
7. Relatively accurate
8. George Gallup (1930s)

65

Methods for random sample (scientific polling)

Random digit dialing and door to door

66

Random digit dialing (7)

1. Low cost
2. Less accurate
3. Lower response rate (problem)
4. Most used today
5. Sample selected by phone prefix
6. Cell phones (problem)
7. 1/7- no phone (problem)

67

Door to door (3)

1. Higher cost
2. Most accurate
3. Won't admit lack of knowledge (problem)

68

The majority of economic groups (group consciousness) consistently call for

More govt spending

69

Group consciousness (many people are)

Conservative on social values
Liberal on economic values

70

Largest growing ideological group (past and present)

Past: centrists/ moderates
Present: conservatives

71

Types of voters (4)

Ideologues, group benefit voters, nature of times voters, no issue content voters

72

Ideologues

Vote mainly based on ideology

73

Group benefit voters

Vote mainly based on who will benefit group
(Group consciousness)

74

Nature of times voters (another name?)

Retrospective voters

Vote based on current situations, good and bad times

Mostly about economic

75

No issue content voters

Vote solely on candidate personalities

76

Most voters are -, least voters are-

Group benefit voters, ideologues

77

Least predictable type of voter

Nature of times, no issue content

78

No policy difference, - less likely to vote

Ideologues and group benefit

79

More educated- what rule of voter?

No issue content

80

What type of voter- unpredictable swing voter?

Nature of times and no issue content

81

Strict constructionism

Only what const allows, strictly

82

Democratization.

Open voting to more ppl

83

Methods of political participation
Conventional

What's increasing/ decreasing

Voting, running for office, contacting officials, campaign contribution, petitions

Voter turnout decreasing, everything else increasing

84

Methods of political participation
Unconventional

Protests
-marches
-civil disobedience
-violent acts
-demonstrations

85

How has democratization been achieved (5)

1. Passage of state laws
2. Changes in party practices
3. Amendments
4. Federal laws (voters rights act 1965)
5. Federal court rulings

86

17th amendment

Progressive era, ppl choose senators

87

Initiative elections

Allow voters to write and approve state laws

88

Referendum elections

Allow voters to approve laws written by state legislatures, recall elections (ST laws)

89

Recall elections

Allow voters to remove state officials

90

Primary elections

(ST laws/ party practices) allow party voters to choose party nominees for offices

91

24 th amendment

Outlawed poll taxes

92

Voting rights act of 1965

Outlawed discriminating voter practices such as literacy tests, white primaries, etc

93

Pre clearance

Forced states with histories of voting discrimination (the south) to submit any changes to voting laws to the US Dept of Justice for approval
- recently determined to be unconstitutional

94

23 amendment

DC can vote

95

The Help America Vote Act (HAVA)

Reaction to 2000 Bush Gore fiasco
1. Forced states to use provisional ballots in presidential elections to be cast by those whose names may not appear on voter registration rolls (to be counted if found valid)
2. Outlawed state practices of removing names from voter registration lists for non-voting
3. Gave state grants for the purpose of
-improving registered voter data bases
- purchasing better election equipment

96

Demographics of voter turnout in order of importance (8)

1. Education
2. Religiosity
3. Age
4. Race/ethnicity
5. Gender (since 1980)
6. Martial status
7. Union affiliation
7. Region (higher voter turnout in north than south and sunbelt, esp northern Great Plains)

97

Cross cutting cleavages

Some demographic features control influence of other features

98

3 elements of voter decisions

1. Party identification
2. Candidate evaluation
3. Policy voting

99

Recall elections

Elections to remove an elected official

100

How many electoral votes

538 electoral

101

How many ppl in house

435

102

How many years are house and senators elected

House: 6
Sen: 2

103

What amendment changed electoral system

12

104

Only states that don't use winner-take-all system

Maine and Nebraska

105

If no candidate receives 270 votes, - determines winner

House of Representatives

106

How many electoral votes are needed?

270