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Flashcards in World War 1 Deck (10)
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What caused world war 1 (underlying and immediate)

System of alliances, militarism, imperialism, nationalism, assassination of Franz Ferdinand


Which European nations were members of which alliance and specifically how did the system of alliances lead to world war 1

Triple alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple entente- Russia, England, France

Divided Europe into 2 opposing groups of nations (increased chance of all out war)


What was the Von Schlieffen plan for military victory and why did it fail

Plan to defeat France before Britain can respond and Russia can mobilize for invasion of Germany (avoid 2 front plan)

Failed because
Belgium put up more residence than expected
Russia mobilized quicker than expected and invaded Germany
Brit forces arrived in France faster than expected
(1 battle of the Marne- brit and french forces halt German advance in Paris)


Why did the war on the western front turn into a stalemate

1. Failure of Von Schlieffen plan
2. Germany had to fight 2 front war (west against France and Britain, east against Russia)
3. New and powerful weapons made old methods and plans of war obsolete (useless with age)


What is meant by total war (various elements)

Organizing and committing all human send material,resources to the war effort
1. Military draft
2. Rationing
3. War bond rallies
4. Govt propaganda
5. Govt suppression and censorship of anti war activities and speech

Conducting war on enemy civilian populations as well as armed forces
Ex: unrestricted submarine warfare
Massive destruction of property
Massive civilian and military casualties


What caused america to enter the war on the side of the allies in 1917

Unrestricted submarine warfare against America ( sinking of Lusitania )
Germany attempt to create military alliance with Mexico Zimmerman telegraph
Cultural and historical ties to brit and France
Trade with Brit and France
Debt owned by Brit and France (probably can't collect if defeated)


What allowed the allies to break the stalemate in 1918 and force Germany to sign an armistice

1. German offensive failed in 2nd battle of the Marne
2. Us entry into war toy led balance of men and supplies in favor of allies
3. Germany wanted to avoid invasion of Germany
4. Central powers running out of men and supplies
5. Kaiser William 2 and emperor of Russia had been forced to resign
6. Ottomans and Bulgaria already surrendered


What were the main points in Wilsons fourteen points and what did he hope to accomplish with them

Self determination, free trade, freedom of the seas, reducing armaments, adjusting colonial between imperial nations, ending use of secret treaties, creation of League of Nations

Wanted war to end all wars


What were the terms in the treaty of Versailles

Recognized self determination for nations in Eastern Europe ( broke up Austrian Hungary, Germany, Russia for punishment )
Created yugo, check, aust., etc. From aust hung emp)
Created Poland from German and Russian
Created Finland, est, Latvia, Lithuania from Russia
Established democratic govt in each of these nations
Punished Germany by forcing it to
Claim responsibility for starting war
Surrender 13 percent of territory including Alsace and Lorraine
Surrender all foreign colonies to control France and Brit (worst)
Disarm military ( 2nd worst )
Remove all military structures from the Rhineland (french German border)
Discontinue submarine warfare
Pay war reparations of billions of dollars

Create League of Nations

Punished ottomans (land as Brit and french mandates )
Brit mandates : Palestine (included most present day Iraq)
French mandates: Syria


How was the treaty a failure for world peace

Caused German people to be bitter and resentful
Russia (Soviet Union) over loss of territory to new nations
Us senate never approved treaty or League of Nations
Led to bitterness and resentment in foreign colonies and mandates because it did not consider their independence
Many european nations created still ethnically diverse
New democracies created unstable and had no experience with democracy