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Flashcards in Chapters 1 and 2 Test Deck (95)
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Allowing more ppl to participate in govt


Why did ppl fear democratization (2 reasons)

Feared they would make emotional decisions instead of reasonable decisions and tyranny of the majority


How can democratization be accomplished?

(2 reasons)

Allow more ppl suffrage

Allow more ppl to directly participate in nomination process


How has democratization taken place through formal and informal methods? (Examples, basically)

Amendments (formal)

Party practices (informal method)


What are examples of party practices (informal method)?
What era did these happen in?

Parties convinced state govts to lower property restrictions (Jacksonian era)

Party presidential conventions replaced party caucuses (meeting of party leaders) as means of nominating pres and VP candidates (Jacksonian)

Party primary elections (party elections to nominate candidates for office) (progressive era-early 1900s) in


What are examples of democratizing amendments? (Formal process)


Reason for last amendment?

1. 14th- African Americans citizenship
2. 15th- outlawed race based voter qualifications
3. 17th- allowed direct election of senators
4. 19th- women's suffrage
5. 23rd- granted Washinton DC electoral votes (3 electoral votes)
6. 24th- ended use of poll taxes as qualification for voting
26th- allowed 18 yr olds right to vote (1972-1973, Vietnam War, draft age 18)


Conflict between people creates what?

A political issue


Who begins the policy cycle?

The people


What is politics?

The process as to who gets what, when, and how (the authoritative allocation of scarce resources)

The how


What's government?

The institutions (authority) that actually determines who gets what, when, and how (by making public policy)

The who


What's public policy?

Decisions (rules) or non-decisions made by government to settle political issues

What govt decides to do


Political issues:

Who can't solve these?

An issue that arises out of conflict between the people about a political problem and how to fix it

People cannot settle it themselves, any conflict ppl can't settle


Policy agenda

Those policy items that govt officials decide to address


Political values:

Those elements (ideas/our beliefs) which guide a person's decisions regarding public policy


The policy making process creates both - and -

Winners and losers


What part of the policy making process is politics?

All of it


What are the steps in the policy making process: (there are 3)

Elaborate on step 1

If something gets on the policy agenda it will become...

What is the "who" in step 3

1. Political conflict (main sources: material scarcity and values conflict)
2. Political issues
3. Public policy (if it gets on the policy agenda it will become public policy) (the who is govt)


What's a linkage institution?

What are examples:

Political, non-governmental instit created to help channel the people's concerns (polit issues) onto the policy agenda

Ex: elections, campaign political parties, the media, and interest groups


What are policymaking institutions?

(Government) those in branches of govt at state and federal level

Ex: congress, pres, courts, the federal bureaucracy, state legislatures, governors, etc.


What are the types of policy?
Who decides them?

1. Congressional laws (states/legislation)
2. Govt budget decisions (congress/pres)
3. Presidential decisions
4. Bureaucratic agency rules


What are examples of govt budget decisions? (2)
What are examples of presidential decisions? (2)
What's a bureaucracy?

1. Expenditure plans (aka. Appropriations)
2. Tax plans (aka. Revenues)

1. Executive orders
2. Executive agreements, etc.

Bureaucracy: the executive agencies that help carry out the work of govt


What two parties make a social contract?

Govt and people


Which party is the source of power? (Govt or people)



What do people give up in the social contract?



What do people get from govt in social contract?

Protection of rights


According to the model, who is the servant, ppl or govt?



What should happen if govt abuses its power? Why?

Replace of overthrow it

In a contract, ppl agreed to give power to govt to protect their rights



European movement that advocated use of logic and reason to find natural laws that regulate human society by creating better social instit


What are the three enlightenment ideals wee believe today?

1. Liberty (freedom)
2. Equality of opportunity
3. Importance of checking self-interest


State of nature:
What does part of this lead to?

Ppl are naturally free and equal, but this freedom leads to inequality and chaos