Flashcards in Chapters 1 and 2 Test Deck (95)
Allowing more ppl to participate in govt
Why did ppl fear democratization (2 reasons)
Feared they would make emotional decisions instead of reasonable decisions and tyranny of the majority
How can democratization be accomplished?
Allow more ppl suffrage
Allow more ppl to directly participate in nomination process
How has democratization taken place through formal and informal methods? (Examples, basically)
Party practices (informal method)
What are examples of party practices (informal method)?
What era did these happen in?
Parties convinced state govts to lower property restrictions (Jacksonian era)
Party presidential conventions replaced party caucuses (meeting of party leaders) as means of nominating pres and VP candidates (Jacksonian)
Party primary elections (party elections to nominate candidates for office) (progressive era-early 1900s) in
What are examples of democratizing amendments? (Formal process)
Reason for last amendment?
1. 14th- African Americans citizenship
2. 15th- outlawed race based voter qualifications
3. 17th- allowed direct election of senators
4. 19th- women's suffrage
5. 23rd- granted Washinton DC electoral votes (3 electoral votes)
6. 24th- ended use of poll taxes as qualification for voting
26th- allowed 18 yr olds right to vote (1972-1973, Vietnam War, draft age 18)
Conflict between people creates what?
A political issue
Who begins the policy cycle?
What is politics?
The process as to who gets what, when, and how (the authoritative allocation of scarce resources)
The institutions (authority) that actually determines who gets what, when, and how (by making public policy)
What's public policy?
Decisions (rules) or non-decisions made by government to settle political issues
What govt decides to do
Who can't solve these?
An issue that arises out of conflict between the people about a political problem and how to fix it
People cannot settle it themselves, any conflict ppl can't settle
Those policy items that govt officials decide to address
Those elements (ideas/our beliefs) which guide a person's decisions regarding public policy
The policy making process creates both - and -
Winners and losers
What part of the policy making process is politics?
All of it
What are the steps in the policy making process: (there are 3)
Elaborate on step 1
If something gets on the policy agenda it will become...
What is the "who" in step 3
1. Political conflict (main sources: material scarcity and values conflict)
2. Political issues
3. Public policy (if it gets on the policy agenda it will become public policy) (the who is govt)
What's a linkage institution?
What are examples:
Political, non-governmental instit created to help channel the people's concerns (polit issues) onto the policy agenda
Ex: elections, campaign political parties, the media, and interest groups
What are policymaking institutions?
(Government) those in branches of govt at state and federal level
Ex: congress, pres, courts, the federal bureaucracy, state legislatures, governors, etc.
What are the types of policy?
Who decides them?
1. Congressional laws (states/legislation)
2. Govt budget decisions (congress/pres)
3. Presidential decisions
4. Bureaucratic agency rules
What are examples of govt budget decisions? (2)
What are examples of presidential decisions? (2)
What's a bureaucracy?
1. Expenditure plans (aka. Appropriations)
2. Tax plans (aka. Revenues)
1. Executive orders
2. Executive agreements, etc.
Bureaucracy: the executive agencies that help carry out the work of govt
What two parties make a social contract?
Govt and people
Which party is the source of power? (Govt or people)
What do people give up in the social contract?
What do people get from govt in social contract?
Protection of rights
According to the model, who is the servant, ppl or govt?
What should happen if govt abuses its power? Why?
Replace of overthrow it
In a contract, ppl agreed to give power to govt to protect their rights
European movement that advocated use of logic and reason to find natural laws that regulate human society by creating better social instit
What are the three enlightenment ideals wee believe today?
1. Liberty (freedom)
2. Equality of opportunity
3. Importance of checking self-interest
State of nature:
What does part of this lead to?
Ppl are naturally free and equal, but this freedom leads to inequality and chaos
What are example ?
In natural state man is ruled by laws of nature
-innate moral laws
-stronger than human (govt) laws
Natural characteristic of man, cause of inequality and chaos (threatens natural rights) changes state of nature
(Life, liberty, property)
Arise out of this natural law
Consent of governed (social contract):
People willingly give up freedom (consent) to form govts to protect natural rights forming a contract between ppl and govt
Right to revolt:(when does it occur)
When govt breaks contract
Power of govt must be restricted so that it only does things citizens allow
All authority rests w/ people. Govt expresses will of people
-direct democracy: ppl make and vote on laws directly themselves
Representative democracy (indirect democ): ppl vote on small group of people (representatives) to make and vote on laws
Two main types:
1 small person or group of ppl have political authority
Those who rule aren't responsible to will of people
2 main types:
Autocracy: 1 person holds all power (military dictatorship, absolute monarchy)
Oligarchy: small group holds all power
An elected government limited by rule of law
All republican democracies are-
What's the difference between revenue and taxes?
Revenue is taxes (more than 90%)
Appropriations is govt spending
What are the 5 criteria in traditional theory of democ?
What was biggest concern of framers?
Does it work?
1. Citizen control of agenda (through majority rule and representative) majoritarianism
2. Equality in voting (one person, one vote)
3. Effective participation (all citizens participate)
4. Enlightened understanding (society is marketplace of ideas and citizens understand political issues)
5. Inclusion (minority rights are protected from majority abuse) THE BIGGEST CONCERN OF FRAMERS
Does not work, we don't meet criteria
Politics is mainly competition among groups
Similar groups will work together (form majorities)
Public interest will prevail
Elite and class theory:
Societies are divided among class lines and that upper elite class will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization
Not all groups equal
Policies benefit those with power
What does this result in?
Groups are so strong that government is weakened
-exaggerated form of pluralism
Gridlock- inability to act at all
Groups come together
Widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the ways that political and economic life are ought to be carried out in society
What's a conflictual culture?
Different subgroups with different core political cultures within same nation
-subgroups often clash
- not a fair nation state
-many euro countries
What's consensus culture?
True nation state
Citizens have same political values set (common core values)
Ppl may disagree on how core values are implemented
What classified people based on political beliefs?
Ideology (coherent and consistent logical pattern of beliefs about politics and political issues)
The govt of favoring members of disadvantaged groups who currently suffer or who have historically suffered from discrimination within a culture
What's a faith based initiative?
Federal programs to religious institutions with federal funding to deliver govt mandated social services
What are neocons?
Order most important
Combat terrorism (Iraq war 2002)
Temporary erosion of freedoms to protect nation
Pushed Bush to invade Afghanistan and Iraq (pretty much)
Moderates tend to vote...
Move to extremes, harder to make agreements and compromise, started in 2008, causes gridlock
More Americans are (conservative or liberal)?
Americans are conservative on -
They are liberal on -
This is especially true of who?
Example for part 2 of first q?
Social values, economic values
Example: old ppl want social security
Vast majority of Americans are near...
Large growing group over the decades
Most centrists tend to identify with...
5 principles of US constitution
1. Popular sovereignty
3. Separation of powers
4. System of checks and balances
5. Limited government
Separation of powers :
What are the main powers of each branch?
Division of main powers into branches
Legislative: power to make law
Executive: power to carry out and enforce laws (pres, executive departments, bureaucracy)
Power to interpret and apply laws: judicial branch
What's limited government?
What are the 2 associated principles?
No govt is all powerful and may only do those things that the people have given it the power to do
1. Rule of law: govt and officers always subject to law
2. Constitutionalism: the govt must be conducted according to constitutional principles
What's habeas corpus?
No person may be kept in jail unless charges are made and a trial scheduled
What's bills of attainer?
No person may be punished without being granted a trial in court
What's ex post facto laws?
No person may be punished for acts that were not criminal at time committed
What was the legislative branch of confederation govt called?
How does it appear members of national govt were appointed?
Appointed by state legislature
Who, in Confederation govt, had power to coin money
Both state and national govt
Who had the power to regulate trade with foreign nations in Confederation govt?
What was the first meeting to revise the articles?
The Annapolis meeting
What was the Philadelphia convention also called? What happened?
Constitutional convention, framers set about making new Constituion
What was dilemma with new Constitution being passed?
It needed unanimous vote (at first)
What was framers political beliefs?
What caused political conflict, to them?
Why did they fear democracy?
Human nature ruled by self interest
Political conflict caused by unequal distribution of property
Main objective of government was to preserve natural rights
Who led the Philadelphia convention? (4)
Washington, Hamilton, Ben Franklin, James Madison
What did Hamilton, Franklin, Washin, and Madison mainly do?
Ham- leading proponent of strong centralized govt
Frank- Liberty and equality
Madison- large parts of const, Virginia plan
Who wasn't in attendance at the const convention?
Patrick Henry- refused to attend
Thomas Jefferson- ambassador to France
Declaration of Independence arguments based on? Written by who?
John lockes ideas of social contract,
#of votes based on population
- large state plan
- bicameral congress (senate and house)
New Jersey plan
All states equal (1 vote each), small state plan
-unicameral congress (1 house)
Basically like articles plan
Also called (great compromise)
-senate (upper house)
--all states equal votes (2), longer terms (6 years), members chosen by state legislature
-House of representatives (lower house)
--state votes proportional to population (proportional representation), shorter terms, members elected by districts of equal population)
To pass laws:
MAJORITY VOTE BY BOTH HOUSES
Slave trade and commerce comp:
International trade of slaves prohibited by congress in 20 years
Most framers wanted - suffrage.
Afraid ordinary ppl would take away property owners rights, elect demagogue (polit leader who get power by arousing emotion)
People directly vote on the: (which part of congress)
Fraction of - to propose an amendment?
2/3 congress or states
Fraction of what to ratify amendment?
3/4 state legislatures or state conventions
Two methods of proposing amendments?
2/3 vote of Congress
Approval of national proposing convention called by Congress (after request of 2/3 legislatures)
Two ways amendment is ratified?
3/4 state legislatures (majority vote in each)
3/4 states in state conventions (majority vote in each)
5 methods of informal change:
1. Congressional legislation
2. Executive action
3. Judicial review
4. Political party practices
5. Custom and Usage (evolution)
What's congressional legislation?
Changes made by congress through constitutional lawmaking power
Ex: judiciary act of 1789 (est federal court system)
What's executive actions?
Power and actions taken by president not in const
Ex: use of war powers to send troops abroad w/out a formal declaration of war
The power of the courts to interpret and define what the const means when cases involve const questions
Ex: court gave itself power in Marbury v Madison
Political party practices:
Much of what govt does revolves around them (but they aren't in const)
Ex: primary elections, party conventions (officially choose pres and VP candidates), many leadership positions in congress