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Flashcards in Chapters 1 and 2 Test Deck (95)
1

Democratization

Allowing more ppl to participate in govt

2

Why did ppl fear democratization (2 reasons)

Feared they would make emotional decisions instead of reasonable decisions and tyranny of the majority

3

How can democratization be accomplished?

(2 reasons)

Allow more ppl suffrage

Allow more ppl to directly participate in nomination process

4

How has democratization taken place through formal and informal methods? (Examples, basically)

Amendments (formal)

Party practices (informal method)

5

What are examples of party practices (informal method)?
What era did these happen in?
(3)

Parties convinced state govts to lower property restrictions (Jacksonian era)

Party presidential conventions replaced party caucuses (meeting of party leaders) as means of nominating pres and VP candidates (Jacksonian)

Party primary elections (party elections to nominate candidates for office) (progressive era-early 1900s) in

6

What are examples of democratizing amendments? (Formal process)

(7)

Reason for last amendment?

1. 14th- African Americans citizenship
2. 15th- outlawed race based voter qualifications
3. 17th- allowed direct election of senators
4. 19th- women's suffrage
5. 23rd- granted Washinton DC electoral votes (3 electoral votes)
6. 24th- ended use of poll taxes as qualification for voting
26th- allowed 18 yr olds right to vote (1972-1973, Vietnam War, draft age 18)

7

Conflict between people creates what?

A political issue

8

Who begins the policy cycle?

The people

9

What is politics?

The process as to who gets what, when, and how (the authoritative allocation of scarce resources)

The how

10

What's government?

The institutions (authority) that actually determines who gets what, when, and how (by making public policy)

The who

11

What's public policy?

Decisions (rules) or non-decisions made by government to settle political issues

What govt decides to do

12

Political issues:

Who can't solve these?

An issue that arises out of conflict between the people about a political problem and how to fix it

People cannot settle it themselves, any conflict ppl can't settle

13

Policy agenda

Those policy items that govt officials decide to address

14

Political values:

Those elements (ideas/our beliefs) which guide a person's decisions regarding public policy

15

The policy making process creates both - and -

Winners and losers

16

What part of the policy making process is politics?

All of it

17

What are the steps in the policy making process: (there are 3)

Elaborate on step 1

If something gets on the policy agenda it will become...

What is the "who" in step 3

1. Political conflict (main sources: material scarcity and values conflict)
2. Political issues
3. Public policy (if it gets on the policy agenda it will become public policy) (the who is govt)

18

What's a linkage institution?

What are examples:

Political, non-governmental instit created to help channel the people's concerns (polit issues) onto the policy agenda

Ex: elections, campaign political parties, the media, and interest groups

19

What are policymaking institutions?

(Government) those in branches of govt at state and federal level

Ex: congress, pres, courts, the federal bureaucracy, state legislatures, governors, etc.

20

What are the types of policy?
(4)
Who decides them?

1. Congressional laws (states/legislation)
2. Govt budget decisions (congress/pres)
3. Presidential decisions
4. Bureaucratic agency rules

21

What are examples of govt budget decisions? (2)
What are examples of presidential decisions? (2)
What's a bureaucracy?

1. Expenditure plans (aka. Appropriations)
2. Tax plans (aka. Revenues)

1. Executive orders
2. Executive agreements, etc.

Bureaucracy: the executive agencies that help carry out the work of govt

22

What two parties make a social contract?

Govt and people

23

Which party is the source of power? (Govt or people)

People

24

What do people give up in the social contract?

Power

25

What do people get from govt in social contract?

Protection of rights

26

According to the model, who is the servant, ppl or govt?

Govt

27

What should happen if govt abuses its power? Why?

Replace of overthrow it

In a contract, ppl agreed to give power to govt to protect their rights

28

Enlightenment

European movement that advocated use of logic and reason to find natural laws that regulate human society by creating better social instit

29

What are the three enlightenment ideals wee believe today?

1. Liberty (freedom)
2. Equality of opportunity
3. Importance of checking self-interest

30

State of nature:
What does part of this lead to?

Ppl are naturally free and equal, but this freedom leads to inequality and chaos

31

Natural law:

What are example ?

In natural state man is ruled by laws of nature

-innate moral laws
-stronger than human (govt) laws

32

Self interest:

Natural characteristic of man, cause of inequality and chaos (threatens natural rights) changes state of nature

33

Natural rights:

(Life, liberty, property)

Arise out of this natural law

34

Consent of governed (social contract):

People willingly give up freedom (consent) to form govts to protect natural rights forming a contract between ppl and govt

35

Right to revolt:(when does it occur)

When govt breaks contract

36

Limited govt:

Power of govt must be restricted so that it only does things citizens allow

37

Democracy:
2 types:

All authority rests w/ people. Govt expresses will of people

-direct democracy: ppl make and vote on laws directly themselves

Representative democracy (indirect democ): ppl vote on small group of people (representatives) to make and vote on laws

38

Dictatorship?
Two main types:

1 small person or group of ppl have political authority
Those who rule aren't responsible to will of people

2 main types:
Autocracy: 1 person holds all power (military dictatorship, absolute monarchy)
Oligarchy: small group holds all power

39

Republic:

An elected government limited by rule of law

40

All republican democracies are-

Republics

41

What's the difference between revenue and taxes?

Revenue is taxes (more than 90%)
Appropriations is govt spending

42

What are the 5 criteria in traditional theory of democ?

What was biggest concern of framers?

Does it work?

1. Citizen control of agenda (through majority rule and representative) majoritarianism
2. Equality in voting (one person, one vote)
3. Effective participation (all citizens participate)
4. Enlightened understanding (society is marketplace of ideas and citizens understand political issues)
5. Inclusion (minority rights are protected from majority abuse) THE BIGGEST CONCERN OF FRAMERS

Does not work, we don't meet criteria

43

Pluralist theory

Politics is mainly competition among groups
Similar groups will work together (form majorities)
Public interest will prevail

44

Elite and class theory:

Societies are divided among class lines and that upper elite class will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization

Not all groups equal

Policies benefit those with power

45

Hyper pluralism

What does this result in?

Groups are so strong that government is weakened

-exaggerated form of pluralism

RESULTS IN:
Confusing/contradictory policies
Gridlock- inability to act at all

46

What's coalition?

Groups come together

47

Political culture:

Widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the ways that political and economic life are ought to be carried out in society

48

What's a conflictual culture?

Ex?

Different subgroups with different core political cultures within same nation
-subgroups often clash
-"cultural wars"
- not a fair nation state

-many euro countries

49

What's consensus culture?

True nation state

Citizens have same political values set (common core values)
Ppl may disagree on how core values are implemented

50

What classified people based on political beliefs?

Ideology (coherent and consistent logical pattern of beliefs about politics and political issues)

51

Affirmative action:

The govt of favoring members of disadvantaged groups who currently suffer or who have historically suffered from discrimination within a culture

52

What's a faith based initiative?

Federal programs to religious institutions with federal funding to deliver govt mandated social services

53

What are neocons?

Order most important

Combat terrorism (Iraq war 2002)
Temporary erosion of freedoms to protect nation
Pushed Bush to invade Afghanistan and Iraq (pretty much)

54

Moderates tend to vote...

Democratic

55

Political polarization:

Move to extremes, harder to make agreements and compromise, started in 2008, causes gridlock

56

More Americans are (conservative or liberal)?

Conservative

57

Americans are conservative on -
They are liberal on -

This is especially true of who?

Example for part 2 of first q?

Social values, economic values

Moderates

Example: old ppl want social security

58

Vast majority of Americans are near...

The middle

59

Large growing group over the decades

Centrists/moderates

60

Most centrists tend to identify with...

Democratic Party

61

5 principles of US constitution

1. Popular sovereignty
2. Federalism
3. Separation of powers
4. System of checks and balances
5. Limited government

62

Separation of powers :
What are the main powers of each branch?

Division of main powers into branches

Legislative: power to make law
Executive: power to carry out and enforce laws (pres, executive departments, bureaucracy)
Power to interpret and apply laws: judicial branch

63

What's limited government?

What are the 2 associated principles?

No govt is all powerful and may only do those things that the people have given it the power to do

1. Rule of law: govt and officers always subject to law
2. Constitutionalism: the govt must be conducted according to constitutional principles

64

What's habeas corpus?

No person may be kept in jail unless charges are made and a trial scheduled

65

What's bills of attainer?

No person may be punished without being granted a trial in court

66

What's ex post facto laws?

No person may be punished for acts that were not criminal at time committed

67

What was the legislative branch of confederation govt called?

Congress

68

How does it appear members of national govt were appointed?

Appointed by state legislature

69

Who, in Confederation govt, had power to coin money

Both state and national govt

70

Who had the power to regulate trade with foreign nations in Confederation govt?

State govt

71

What was the first meeting to revise the articles?

The Annapolis meeting

72

What was the Philadelphia convention also called? What happened?

Constitutional convention, framers set about making new Constituion

73

What was dilemma with new Constitution being passed?

It needed unanimous vote (at first)

74

What was framers political beliefs?

What caused political conflict, to them?

Why did they fear democracy?

Enlightenment

Human nature ruled by self interest

Political conflict caused by unequal distribution of property

Main objective of government was to preserve natural rights

75

Who led the Philadelphia convention? (4)

Washington, Hamilton, Ben Franklin, James Madison

76

What did Hamilton, Franklin, Washin, and Madison mainly do?

Wash- chairman
Ham- leading proponent of strong centralized govt
Frank- Liberty and equality
Madison- large parts of const, Virginia plan

77

Who wasn't in attendance at the const convention?

Patrick Henry- refused to attend
Thomas Jefferson- ambassador to France

78

Declaration of Independence arguments based on? Written by who?

John lockes ideas of social contract,

T Jefferson

79

Virginia plan:

#of votes based on population
- large state plan
- bicameral congress (senate and house)

80

New Jersey plan

All states equal (1 vote each), small state plan
-unicameral congress (1 house)
Basically like articles plan

81

Connecticut compromise

Also called (great compromise)
-senate (upper house)
--all states equal votes (2), longer terms (6 years), members chosen by state legislature

-House of representatives (lower house)
--state votes proportional to population (proportional representation), shorter terms, members elected by districts of equal population)

82

To pass laws:

MAJORITY VOTE BY BOTH HOUSES

83

Slave trade and commerce comp:

International trade of slaves prohibited by congress in 20 years

84

Most framers wanted - suffrage.
Why?

Limited suffrage

Afraid ordinary ppl would take away property owners rights, elect demagogue (polit leader who get power by arousing emotion)

85

People directly vote on the: (which part of congress)

House

86

Fraction of - to propose an amendment?

2/3 congress or states

87

Fraction of what to ratify amendment?

3/4 state legislatures or state conventions

88

Two methods of proposing amendments?

2/3 vote of Congress
Approval of national proposing convention called by Congress (after request of 2/3 legislatures)

89

Two ways amendment is ratified?

3/4 state legislatures (majority vote in each)
3/4 states in state conventions (majority vote in each)

90

5 methods of informal change:

1. Congressional legislation
2. Executive action
3. Judicial review
4. Political party practices
5. Custom and Usage (evolution)

91

What's congressional legislation?

Changes made by congress through constitutional lawmaking power

Ex: judiciary act of 1789 (est federal court system)

92

What's executive actions?

Power and actions taken by president not in const

Ex: use of war powers to send troops abroad w/out a formal declaration of war

93

Judicial review

The power of the courts to interpret and define what the const means when cases involve const questions

Ex: court gave itself power in Marbury v Madison

94

Political party practices:

Much of what govt does revolves around them (but they aren't in const)

Ex: primary elections, party conventions (officially choose pres and VP candidates), many leadership positions in congress

95

Custom and usage

Practices that have evolved without being written in const

Ex: presidential oath of office taken with bible