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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Test Deck (109)

The scandals of the grant administration included bribes and corrupt dealings reaching to the cabinet and Vice President of the us



The liberal republican movements political skill enabled it to clean up the corruption of the grant administration



The severe economic downturn of the 1870s caused business failures, labor conflict, and battles over currency



The close, fiercely contested elections of the guilded age reflected the deep divisions between republicans and democrats over national issues



The battles between the stalwart and halfbreed republican factions were mainly over who would get patronage and spoils



The disputed Hayes Tilden election was settled by a political deal in which democrats got the president and republicans got economic and political concessions



The compromise of 1877 purchased political peace between north and south by sacrificing southern blacks and removing federal troops in the south



The sharecropping and tenant farming systems forced many southern blacks into permanent economic debt and dependency



Ulysses s grants status as a military hero enabled him to become a successful president who stood above partisan politics



Western hostility to Chinese immigrants arose in part because the Chinese provided a source of cheap labor that competed with white workers



By reducing politicians use of patronage, the new civil service system inadvertently made them more dependent on big campaign contributors



The Cleveland Blaine campaign of 1884 was conducted primarily as a debate about the issues of taxes and the tariff



The Republican Party, in the post civil war era, relied heavily on the political support of veterans' groups, to which it gave substantial pension benefits in return



The populist party's attempt to form a coalition of farmers and workers failed partly because of the racial division between poor whites and blacks in the south



President clevelands deal to save the gold standard by borrowing 65 million from JP Morgan enhanced his popularity among both democrats and populists



Financiers Jim Fisk and Jay Gould involved the grant administration in a corrupt scheme to

Corner the gold market


Boss Tweeds widespread corruption was brought to a halt by

The journalistic exposés of the New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast


The credit mobilier scandal involved

Railroad corruption fraud and the subsequent bribery of congressmen to cover it up


Grants greatest failing in the scandals that plagued his administration was his

Toleration of corruption and his loyalty to crooked friends


The depression of the 1870s led to increasing demands for

Inflation of the money supply by issuing more paper or silver currency


The political system of the guided age was generally characterized by

Strong party loyalties, high voter turnout, and few disagreements on national issues


The primary goal for which all factions in both political parties contended during the guilded age was



The key trade off featured in the compromise of 1877 was that

Republicans got the presidency in exchange for the final removal of federal troops from the south


What were the changes that affected African Americans in the south after federal troops were withdrawn in the compromise of 1877

The imposition of literacy requirements and poll taxes to prevent black voting, the development of the tenant farming and share cropping systems, the introduction of legal systems of racial segregation, the rise of mob lynching as means of suppressing blacks who challenged the racial system


The supreme courts ruling in plessy v Ferguson upholding "separate but equal" public facilities in effect legalized

The system of unequal segregation between the races


The great railroad strike of 1877 revealed the

Growing threat of class warfare in response to the economic depression of the mid 1870s


The final result of the widespread anti Chinese agitation in the west was

A congressional law to prohibit any further Chinese immigration


President James Garfield was assassinated by

A mentally unstable disappointed office seeker


In its first years, the populist party advocated, among other things

Free silver, a graduated income tax, and government ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephone


Grover Cleveland stirred a furious storm of protest when, in response to the extreme financial crisis of the 1890s, he

Borrowed 65 million dollars from JP Morgan and other bankers in order to save the monetary gold standard


The symbol of the Republican political tactic of attacking democrats with reminders of the civil war

Waving the bloody shirt


Corrupt construction company whose bribes and payoffs to congressmen and others created a major grant administration scandal

Crédit mobilier


Short lived third party of 1872 that attempted to curb Grant administration corruption

Liberal Republican Party


Precious metal that soft money advocates demanded be coined again to compensate for the Crime of '73



Soft money third party that polled over a million votes and elected fourteen congressmen in 1878 by advocating inflation

Greenback Labor Party


Mark Twains sarcastic name for the post civil war era, which emphasized it's atmosphere of greed and corruption

Gilded age


Civil war unions veterans' organization that became a potent political bulwark of the Republican Party in the late 19th century

GAR, Guard Army of the Republic


Republican Party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling that opposed all attempts at civil service reform



Republican Party faction led by Senator James G Blaine that paid lip service to govt reform while still battling for patronage and spoils

Half breeds


The complex political agreement between republicans and democrats that resolved the bitterly disputed election of 1876

Compromise of 1877


Asian immigrant group that experienced discrimination on the west coast



System of choosing federal employees on the basis of merit rather than patronage introduced by the Pendleton act of 1883

Civil Service Commission


Sky high republican tariff of 1890 that caused widespread anger among farmers in the 1890s

McKinley tariff


Insurgent political party that gained widespread support among farmers in the 1890s

Peoples party or Populists


Notorious clause in southern voting laws that exempted from literacy tests and poll taxes anyone whose ancestors had voted in 1860, thereby excluding blacks

Grandfather clause


Great military leader whose presidency foundered in corruption and political ineptitude

Ulysses s grant


Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the us gold market nearly succeeded in 1869

Jim Fisk


Heavyweight New York political boss whose widespread fraud landed him in jail in 1871

Boss tweed


Colorful, eccentric newspaper editor who carried the liberal republican and democratic banners against grant in 1872

Horace Greeley


New York prosecutor of boss tweed who later lost in the disputed presidential election of 1876

Samuel Tilden


Irish born leader of the anti Chinese movement in California

Denis Kearney


Radical populist leader whose early political success turned sour and who then became a vicious racist

Tom Watson


Imperious New York senator and leader of the stalwart faction of republicans

Roscoe Conkling


Winner of the contested 1876 election who presided over the end of reconstruction and a sharp economic downturn

Rutherford b Hayes


Charming but corrupt half breed republican senator and presidential nominee in 1884

James g Blaine


President whose assassination after only a few months in office spurred the passage of a civil service law

James Garfield


Term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s

Jim Crow


First democratic president since the civil war, defender of laissez fair economics and low tariffs

Grover Cleveland


Eloquent young congressman from Nebraska who became the most prominent advocate of free silver in the early 1890s

William Jennings Bryan


Enormously wealthy banker whose secret bailout of the federal govt in 1895 aroused fierce public anger

J.P Morgan


1. A bitterly disputed presidential election is resolved by a complex political deal that ends reconstruction in the south
2. Two unscrupulous financiers use corrupt means to manipulate New York gold markets and the U.S treasury
3. A major economic depression causes widespread social unrest and the rise of the populist party as a vehicle of protest
4. Grant administration scandals split the Republican Party, but grant overcomes the inept opposition to win reelection
5. Monetary deflation and the high McKinley tariff lead to growing agitation for free silver by congressmen William Jennings Bryan and others

2, 4, 1, 5, 3


Favor seeking businesspeople and corrupt politicians (cause and effect)

Caused numerous scandals during president grants administration


The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast

Forced boss tweed out of power and into jail


Upright republicans disgust with grant administration scandals

Led to the formation of the liberal Republican Party in 1872


The economic crash of the mid 1870s

Causes unemployment, railroad strikes, and a demand for cheap money


Local cultural, moral, and religious differences

Created fierce partisan competition and high voter turnouts, even though the parties agreed on most national issues


The compromise of 1877 that settled the disputed Hayes-Tilden election

Led to withdrawal of troops from the south and the virtual end of federal efforts to protect black rights there


White workers resentment of Chinese labor competition

Caused anti Chinese violence and restrictions against Chinese immigration


Public shock at Garfields assassination by Guiteau

Helped ensure passage of the Pendleton act


The 1890s depression and the drain of gold from the federal treasury

Induced Grover Cleveland to negotiate a secret loan from JP Morgan's banking syndicate


The inability of populist leaders to overcome divisions between white and black farmers

Led to failure of the third party revolt in the south and a growing racial backlash


Despite his status as a military hero, general Ulysses S. Grant was proved to be a weak political leader because he

Had no political experience and was a poor judge of character


Which political emotion motivated the liberal republican revolt from the regular Republican Party in 1872

Disgust at the corruption and scandals of the grant administration


What were the causes of the panic that broke in 1873 in the United States

A ripple effect from similar, simultaneous economic panics in Europe, and the world
The expansion of more factories, railroads, and mines than existing markets could bare
Bank failures resulting from impudent financial loans made by bankers in support of questionable business ventures
The loss of substantial financial investments by speculators in dubious and unsustainable business ventures


What was a key result of the republican hard money politics in the mid 1870s

A political turn to the democrats and the new greenback labor party


Which development was a critical reason for the extremely high voter turnouts and partisan fervor of the gilded age

Sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the democrat and republican parties


All of the following were among the groups that formed the solid political base of the Republican Party in the late nineteenth century

Union civil war veterans of the grand army of the republic, southern black freedmen, the Midwest, the rural and small town Midwest (no big cities)


What political development resulted from the compromise of 1877?

The withdrawal of federal troops and abandonment of black rights in the south


At the end of reconstruction, southern whites disfranchised African Americans using all the following strategies

Literacy requirements, poll taxes, economic intimidation, lynching


What were causes of labor unrest in the 1870s and 1880s

Reductions in wages by railroad owners and other industrial employees, competition of cheap labor from recently arrived immigrants from China, conflict between ethnic groups for unskilled jobs, years of depression and deflation that undermined workers' living standards


All of the following internal developments during the late 19th century in China resulted in Chinese immigration to the United States

The dissentigration of the Chinese empire, severe land shortages, the intrusion of European powers, limited economic opportunity and political turmoil


With the passage of the Pendleton act, prohibiting political contributors from many federal workers, politicians increasingly sought money from

Contractors doing business with the federal government, or LARGE CORPORATIONS


Grover Cleveland argued for a lower tariff for all of the following reasons

Lower prices for consumers, less protection for monopolies, the end of the Treasury Surplus, the need for smaller government


How did the Billion Dollar Congress quickly dispose of rising government surpluses

It expanded pensions for civil war veterans


President clevelands response to the depression of the 1890s demonstrated that he

Was unable to deal effectively with such a massive economic crisis


The supreme courts decision in plessy v Ferguson solidified African Americans' inferior position by

Establishing the principle of "separate but equal"


Grover Clevelands election in 1884 marked a change in nineteenth century American politics for all the following reasons

He was the first democrat elected since James Buchanan in 1856
He was blunt and tactless, following decades of corruption
He was able to narrow the political division between the north and south
He fired many incumbent republicans, creating democratic justice


Credit mobilier scandal

A construction company was formed by members of the Union Pacific railroad for the purpose of receiving government contracts to build the railroad at highly inflated prices-and profits. In 1872 a scandal erupted when journalists discovered that the credit mobilier company had bribed congressmen and even the Vice President in order to allow the ruse to continue


Panic of 1873

Worldwide depression that began in the United States when the nations largest banks abruptly declared bankruptcy, leading to the collapse of thousands of banks and businesses, crisis intensifies debtor's call inflationary measures such as the printing of more paper money and the unlimited coinage of silver, conflicts over monetary policy greatly influenced politics in the last quarter of the nineteenth century


Compromise of 1877

The agreement that finally resolved the 1876 election amid officially ended reconstruction, in exchange for the republican candidate, Rutherford b Hayes, winning the presidency, Hayes agreed to withdraw the last of the federal troops from the former confederate states, this deal effectively completed the southern return to white only, democratic dominated electoral politics


Chinese exclusion act (1882)

Federal legislation that prohibited most further Chinese immigration to the United States, first major legal restriction on immigration in US history


Pendleton act (1883)

Congressional legislation that established the civil service commission, which granted the federal government jobs on the basis of examination instead of political patronage, thus reigning in the spoils system


Homestead strike

A strike at Carnegie steel plant in homestead PA, that ended in an armed battle between the strikers, three hundred armed "Pinkerton" detectives hired by Carnegie, and federal troops, which killed ten people and wounded more than 60, the strike was part of a nationwide wave of unrest in the summer of 1892 that helped the populists gain some support from industrial workers


Jay Gould

Jim fisks partner in crime, provided brains


Thomas b reed

Harrison's speaker of the house, czar reed, dominated billion dollar congress, counted as present democrats who didn't answer the roll and who denied that they were legally there,


William Jennings Bryan

Silverite democratic congressmen who debated with Cleveland over the cause of free silver when Cleveland wanted to repeal Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890


President Grant

Party- republican
Event- credit mobilier, tweed ring, panic of 1873, hard money and contraction policy (resumption of metallic money payments), civil rights act



Party- republican
Events- compromise of 1877
Vocab- stalwarts, mugwumps



Party- republican
Event- assassination
Vocab- patronage (after assassination)



Party- republican
Event- Pendleton act (bc Garfield was shot)


Cleveland (1st term)

Party- democrat (1st in a while)
Event- wants lower tariff



Party- republican
Event- billion dollar congress, populists emerge, homestead strike


Cleveland (2nd term)

Party- republican
Event- depression of 1893, repeal of Sherman silver purchase act, JP Morgan deal/scandal


Know order of things on timeline...

1. 1860s- political candidates campaign by "waving the bloody shirt"
2. 1871- the boss tweed scandal erupts in New York
3. 1872- the credit mobilier scandal is exposed
4. 1872- grant reelected for president
5. 1873- panic of 1873
6. 1877- comp of 1877 ends contested election of 1876
7. 1880sCrop lien system established
8. 1880s Jim Crow laws begin in south
9. 1881- pres garfield assassinated
10. 1882- Chinese exclusion act
11. 1883- civil rights cases
12. 1883- Pendleton act sets up civil service commission
13. 1884- election of 1884 between James g Blaine and Grover Cleveland
14. 1888- election of 1888
15. 1892- populist party meets for their convention
16. 1893- depression of 1893 begins
17. 1893- repeal of Sherman silver purchase act
18. 1895- JP Morgan's banking syndicate loans 65 million in gold to federal govt


Why were political times so prone to political corruption in the post civil war era

Grant allowing corruption to happen, along with favor seekers in White House he allowed scandals of jubilee Jim Fisk and Jay Gould directly working with president to get treasury to stop selling gold just so the two could bid the price higher, and toleration of tweed rings bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to get as much as 200 million , also allowed credit mobilier scandals, and whiskey ring scandal (robbed treasury in millions in excise tax revenues, got grants response of "let no guilty man escape", yet eventually grant helped exonerate the thief, secretary of war , William belknaps resignation with great regret after he pocketed bribes from suppliers to the Indian reservation)


What were the main issues surrounding the election of 1876, did the compromise of 1877 resolve those issues

Dem and rep could easily tip teeter totter of other party (bc the majority party switched six times, only three sessions did same party control the senate, house, and White House
Two parties competitive of each other, who should count two sets of returns from the three disputed states?
Compromise of 1877 solved most issues by est electoral commission of men selected from house, senate, and Supreme Court that disputed three states sets of returns
Loss of African American protection of rights from republicans


What were the biggest challenges facing post reconstruction south

Concerned Republican Party abandoning commitment to racial equality
Redeemers white democrats) gained control in south, treated blacks cruelly to keep them from voting and because they were racist and could
Jim Crow laws
Plessy v Ferguson
Biggest challenges are racial and lead to unfair treatment of African Americans


What were the main reasons for Chinese immigration in the second half of the nineteenth century

Finding work, from taishan district of K'uang-t'ung (Guangdong ) province in southern China ,
Poor, uneducated, single males
Came to find money (gold) digging in goldfields and sledgehammering the tracks of the transcontinental railroads across the west
Most of gold found and tracks laid, many returned to China with their earnings, some stayed and worked menial jobs as cooks, laundrymen, and domestic servants for cheap


What were some of the reasons for the depression of 1893 and how did Cleveland deal with it?

Splurge of overbuilding and speculation, labor disorders, the ongoing agricultural depression, free silver agitation (want to expand money supply with unlimited coinage of silver) damaged American credit abroad, and the depression felt worsened as American finances were pinched when European banking houses beginning to call in loans from the us, endless chain operation of gold (owners of paper currency would exchange it for gold and notes were reissued)

How he dealt with this
Repeal of Sherman silver purchase act of 1890 (alienating democratic silverites and disrupting his party at the very outset of his administration in his debate with congress over the issue)
Turned to JP Morgan, was loaned 65 million dollars in gold (though bankers charged a commission of 7 million dollars) and the bankers agreed to obtain 1/2 of the gold abroad for the treasury