Flashcards in Unit 1 Test Part 2 Deck (39)
Briefly explain what evidence would support the statement about farmers in this era that "His burdens are heavier every year and his gains are more meager"
Is supported by the evidence that there was more deflation during the time, and with not enough money going around, prices were forced down, and with new machinery producing more output, prices went even lower. This caused heavier burdens and less gains every year when farmers became debtors, and every year their decreasing income caused their debt to rise
Explain what the writer most likely had in mind when he stated "he is beginning to fear that he may be sinking into a servile condition"
The writer likely had in mind that farmers, because of the fact that each year they became poorer and more in debt, began to fear that they would become servants (or even slave like), either on their own farms to pay the debt back, or after losing their land and having to work for someone else
Briefly explain two regional characteristics of either the south or the west that support Turner's assertion that the US was "a vast and varied Union of unlike sections"
The west had unique characteristics to the region, such as the Native Americans there and the bison they hunted because they provided food, weapons, and shelter. The region also was very large, despite having a small population and non-fertile soil.
Briefly explain one reason why Turner was concerned with the closing and disappearance of the frontier that was not stated in the above excerpt
Tuner was also concerned about losing the land that people from industrial cities could escape to, this was referred to as the "safety valve".
Based on this except and your knowledge, briefly explain one argument made by Booker T Washington to improve race relations in the South
One argument made by Booker T Washington to improve race relations in the south was that before African Americans should have complete equality (including social equality) they should be educated and conditioned enough to be prepared for it, therefore they should slowly gain equality (beginning with education and the workforce) before they became equal (or at least not separated) in every other aspect
Briefly explain two forms of discrimination that African Americans experienced at this time in the south
Separate, but not equal, facilities (like water fountains and schools) and the fact that they didn't receive equal pay to white workers, at the same jobs
Briefly explain one change in the south between 1887 and 1900 that reflected the policies of the new south agenda
The mechanization of agriculture reflected the policies of the new south agenda as farms became like factories, with expensive machinery, and many farmers who had to become tied to banking, railroading, and manufacturing to keep up with the new industry
Briefly explain one way the southern economy did not change during this era
The farmers remained poor, and many were forced into sharecropping and tenant farming
Briefly explain one factor that kept the south from making more progress during this period
The lack of industrialization (especially compared to the north) with little industrialization there, the railroad rates were also very high, causing an even bigger lack of industry
Which of the two statements most clearly include evidence to support the claim it makes
1. The Chinese exclusion act indicates the prejudice felt by many people in the us in the late 19th century
2. George Washington carver and Ida b wells demonstrated different methods of combatting racial prejudice
3. Granges and cooperatives demonstrated the strong sense of community many Americans felt in the 19th century
1 and 3
Explain how 2 of the following influenced political party identification and loyalty between 1865 and 1900
Region or location
Depending on where a person is, they have different jobs and motives, an example is the west where many populists, who supported farmers, because, there were many struggling farmers
Because some races tended to be part of political parties that supported them, such as African Americans, who were largely republican. The peoples party didn't thrive in the south for this reason, because populists wanted to unite whites and blacks
Explain one reason that voter turnout was very high during this era
Loyalty to political parties. Citizens wanted their political party to be in office, and therefore voted to make sure that happened.
Explain Eric Foner's interpretation of the populist movement
Populists wanted to unite free men, do away with capitalism, and they wanted economic equality. He wanted the people to be protected from the government
Explain 2 ways the Omaha platform can support Foner's statement that "a generation would pass before a major party offered so sweeping a plan for governmental action"
Today there's a direct election of US senators, along with their being an eight hour workday
What was one factor that determined the outcome of the 1876 election
Bryan, who was McKinley's, the winner's, running mate, inability to appeal to unmortgaged farmers and to, especially, eastern urban laborers, with his program that called for inflation and free silver
Explain 2 significant consequences from the 1896 election
It was the end of the "third party system" and beginning of the fourth party system, which was characterized by diminishing voter participation in elections. There were also the new issues that came about like industrial regulation and welfare of labor, which replaced money questions and civil service reform
Explain the point of view of the artist about ONE of the following
The artist believes that western farmers and their work connects even to those in New York's Wall Street. The illustration shows the farmer's cow being milked and that milk being poured into businesses like the national bank and a factory, showing the artist's point of view about the people in cities using the farmer's hard work, and competition with each other to get money from them (that many farmers might not see), while Wall Street has the easier job and receives the profits
Explain one development in the period from 1865 to 1900 that supported the point of view of the artist
The formation of the populist party supported the view of the artist, because Populists stood up to Wall Street and the "money trust" by attacking them, and they also advocated nationalizing the railroads, telegraph, and telephone; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal "sub treasury", all in which would benefit farmers more, especially against cities like New York Wall Street
Explain one development in the period of 1865 to 1900 that challenged the point of view expressed by the artist
Which of the three following statements would make the best thesis statements?
1. The Gilded Age shows that Hamilton, Clay, and Lincoln were correct in advocating for a strong role of the federal government in the economy
2. Racial conflict slowed the growth and development of the US economy in the 19th century
3. The energy and goals of the 19th century populists make them my favorite movement in US history
4. James Garfield was the second president to be assassinated in less than two decades
5. The McKinley campaign of 1896 run by Mark Hanna set the pattern...
Briefly explain an event from the guilded age that supports that "the farmers were up in arms"
The formation of the Populist Party, who eventually lead an earnest and impassioned campaign to relieve farmer's miseries, as they protested for the nationalizing of railroads, telephone, and telegraph, a graduated income tax, and a new federal "sub treasury" to provide farmers with loans for crops stored in government owned warehouses
Briefly explain the main point of except 1
The Tenure of Office Act shouldn't be excepted because it goes against the president alone, and doesn't preserve the co-ordinate branches (the legislative, executive, judicial)
Explain the main point of except 2
Andrew Johnson did nothing to prevent slavery, making him a tyrannical President who vetoed laws that protected the right of citizens and helped the national debt
Provide 1 piece of evidence from the period 1865 to 1868 that is not included in the excepts and explain how it supports the interpretation in either except
The fact that President Johnson's successor would be Republican Benjamin Wade, who was disliked by many members of the business community for his high tariff, soft money, and pro-labor views, and was distrusted by moderate republicans
Explain the significance of African American legislators during reconstruction in the South during this period
They helped to create new state constitutions that provided for universal male suffrage and formed the backbone of the black political community
Explain the efforts of 1 of the following on African Americans in the South during this period
Sharecroppers (usually accompanied by the crop lien system that made sure African Americans stayed in debt) effected African Americans in the South because it kept them in a position where they were still like a slave to former white masters, in, how they worked like slaves, and didn't get paid enough money to live any better than a slave
Explain the impact of the impeachment of Andrew Johnson Reconstruction
Racist redeemers reassumed political power in the South (keeping blacks from many freedoms and causing them to face unemployment, eviction, or harm), sharecropping and tenant farming came about (and many African Americans were forced into this), Jim Crowe laws for segregation and disfranchisement of many African Americans occurred because of literacy requirements, voter registration laws, and poll taxes, and, in Plessy vs. Ferguson, "separate but equal" was the ruling, but the separate race definitely wasn't equal because of how unfair the African Americans were treated
Explain the role of waving the bloody shirt in the Republican Party during this period
This meant using the civil war, and especially anger from it, to gain votes. This reminded America of the civil war, and was a tactic by Republicans to attack democrats, allowing more republicans to win office
Explain the effects of credit mobilier on businesses and government during this period
This scandal occurred when the credit mobilier construction company formed, began hiring themselves, (the pacific railroad insiders) to earn high dividends, and then, to keep congress from stopping them, distributed shares of stock to congressmen (including the Vice President). This scandal was a major reason why Grant was so corrupt, allowing his administration to continue this, and it was followed by other corrupt business policies as well
Explain the significance of one of the following in terms of President Grant's administration
Greeley was significant because he ran against Grant in the 1872 election. He was unqualified, and, in the past, had insulted the Democrats who voted for him. He didn't end up winning, though, and Grant was elected another term
Explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon above regarding the civil rights act of 1866
It's portrayed as ineffective, and citizens are treating African Americans like slaves again while the government is blinded
Explain one element of the cartoon that expresses the point of view you identified in part A
The peaceful lady protecting the African Americans (representing the government) is blindfolded to actual treatment of blacks
Explain one development in the period of the 1860s that challenged or supported the point of view in the cartoon
The Plessy vs Ferguson case that ruled "separate but equal", when, in reality, blacks were far from being equal, and the government and courts did nothing about it
Which of the two following statements best expresses historical argumentation?
1. Dubbing' view of reconstruction was grounded in racial beliefs that almost nobody accepts today.
2. I agree with the efforts of Charles Sumner on Reconstruction.
3. The freedmen's bureau and black codes provide contradictory evidence for the conclusion that reconstruction was a success
1 and 3
1. Why were the political times so prone to political corruption in the post–Civil War Era?
Grant allowing corruption to happen. Along with his favor seekers in the White House, he allowed, not only, the scandals of "Jubilee" Jim Fisk and Jay Gould (who worked directly with President Grant to get the Treasury to stop selling gold, just so the duo could bid the price higher) and, for a while at least, the Tweed Ring's bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to get as much as $200 million, but President Grant allowed bigger political scandals as well. There was the Credit Mobilier Scandal (when Union Pacific railroad insiders formed the Credit Mobilier Construction Company and then hired themselves, then distributed shares of stock to congressmen), and the scandal of the Whiskey Ring (who robbed the Treasury of millions in excise tax revenues, got Grants original response of "let no guilty man escape", yet eventually Grant volunteered a written statement to the jury helping to exonerate the thief), when Grant accepted Secretary of War, William Belknap's resignation (after he pocketed bribes from suppliers to the Indian Reservation) "with great regret". ...so prone to corruption because of Grant allowing them to happen.
2. What circumstances led to the impeachment and trial of President Johnson and what was the outcome?
Radicals were getting annoyed with President Johnson (the "drunken tailor") in the White House and began to falsely accuse him of maintaining a harem of "dissolute women". After this, they passed the Tenure of Office Act (meaning Johnson had to get consent from the Senate to remove appointees once they had been approved by that body) and secured the secretary of war, Edwin M. Stanton, who was a spy and informer for the radicals. When Johnson dismissed Stanton in 1868, the radicals then had reason to begin impeachment proceedings. In these, the House of Representatives voted 126 to 47 to impeach Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors", though, in the end, House prosecutors (Benjamin F Butler and Thaddeus Stevens) had a hard time coming up with a care for Johnson's impeachment. In the end, Johnson was declared not guilty, which was a good thing because a destabilized precedent wasn't formed, the system of checks and balances wasn't abused, and Benjamin Wade (Johnson's successor and the pro tempore of the Senate who was disliked by many business people because of his views and was distrusted by Repiblicans) wasn't put into office.
3. What were some of the biggest challenges facing labor in the second half of the nineteenth century?
How corporations treated simple workers. As manual skills replaced originality and creativity, factories became depersonalized, bodiless, soulless, and usually conscienceless. New machines replaced many workers, and railroads bringing in unemployed workers from all over the country and elsewhere beat down high wage levels. The employees were highly dispensible and replaceable, as employees could gain wealth through stockholders, get expensive lawyers, buy up local press, pressure politicians, import strikebreakers, and employ thugs to beat up labor organizers. To lessen employees voices even more, corporations also had the power to call upon federal courts to order strikers to stop striking, and if the defiance continued, the corporations caused the state and federal authorities to bring in troops, along with also having the power to call upon federal courts to stop striking, and if the defiance continued, the corporations caused the state and federal authorities to bring in troops, along with also having the power of the procedure, the "lockout", shutting rebelling workers out and starving them into submission. The companies could also make employees agree not to join a labor union, put them on a "black list" for fellow employers to see, and cause employees to go into perpetual debt to them.
4. What were some of the main ways in which the government tried to deal with the trusts? How did the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act deal with monopolies? Were they successful?
The government, at first, tried to control the trusts through state legislation, like they had previously done to curb the railroads. Again, they failed, and appealed to Congress. The Interstate Commerce Act dealt with monopolies by (among other things like prohibiting rebates and pools, requiring railroads to publish their rates openly, forbidding unfair discrimination against shippers, and outlawing charging more for a short haul than for a long one over the same line) establishing the interstate commerce commission (ICC) to administer and enforce the legislation that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce. The Sherman anti trust act was established to go against monopolies, and, when passed, forbade combinations in restraint of trade. This act proved to be unsuccessful because it didn't distinguish between "good trusts" and "bad trusts", and had legal loopholes that corporation lawyers were able to find, though it did end up (going away from its original intent) curbing labor unions or labor combinations that restrained trade. The interstate commerce act, though not a major victory of corporate wealth, did allow competing business interests to resolve conflicts peacefully, and to prevent rate wars between railroads and outraged state legislators who attacked to confiscate them.