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What is the difference between fat shaming and body confidence?

Fat shaming- Definition: judging/discriminating against because of their size. Celebrating weight loss and disapprove weight gain.
Body Confidence- accepting yourself for what it is


What is an IAS?

Implicit Association test- people are presented with words and pictures they are asked to hit the buzzer on the left if the word is positive or a thin person and hit the buzzer on the left if it is a negative word or an overweight person. Then switching so positive words and overweight are the left side and thin & negative words are on the right side. The results showed if there was a faster time for thin & positive you have a weight bias.


How do obesity stereotypes affect workplace, medical, educational and interpersonal settings?

hypothetical hiring (same credentials the thinner person will get hired)
Gender differences (females 16 times more likely to be discriminated against because of weight)
Income gap (women who are overweight make less than their counterparts)
Fewer hiring recommendations (lower salary assignments, more disciplinary decisions, worse placement decisions, more negative personality ratings)
Negative belief about obese people (their fault/lack discipline and psychological problems)
Belief that obesity is caused and controlled by person’s behaviour
PE teacher generally more bias
Effects overweight children (drop out of PE)
Strangers, peers, family & friends all judge
Stereotypes (less sexually desirable)


What are interpersonal, psychosocial, health-related, and academic/socioeconomic consequences of weight bias?

Lack of relationships and social isolation
Physical and emotional abuse
Poor body image, low self-esteem, greater psychological distress
Mediated by experience being overweight does not mean you have psychosocial disturbances
Impaired quality of life
Academic and socioeconomic
Misperception of lower cognitive ability
Relationship with income


What are the coping strategies for weight discrimination?

Internalizing social stereotypes
Attempting to lose weight (personal control/ self-blame)
Turn to food/refuse to diet (unhealthy eating behaviours/eating your feelings)
Assertive coping
Confronting perpetrator
Formal complaints (employment setting)
Public social groups (identify with others/ strength in numbers. Ex. NAFFA)
Asserting body acceptance
Confirmation and compensation strategies
Behaviour consistent with negative stereotypes
Compensating through other means (ex. intelligence or humour)
Self-protection strategies
Placing less value on bias
Avoiding social interactions


What are the 3 causes of weight bias?

Cultural transmission
Belief in controllability of weight
Belief in a “just world” and “beautiful=good”


What are 3 ways to change weight bias?

Changing blame attributions
Evoking empathy
Changing perceived social consensus


What are micro-analysis, macro-analysis, and intermediate-analysis?

Personal choice (taste)
Government regulations, food industry incentives, school lunch programs and campaigns
Big picture reasons
Eating environment (atmosphere, effort time, social interaction and distractions)
Food environment (5 S’s)


Explain the 5 S’s of the food environment

Memories & psychological connections
Structure and perceived variety
Greater variety= greater consumption
Arrangement of food (perception of variety)
Increased visibility and salience
Bulk foods
Serving containers
Drinking glasses (vertical-horizontal illusion)
Plates and bowls (Delbouef illusion)


What are four components of the eating environment?

Eating atmosphere (temp, lighting odour, noise)
Eating effort (ease, location of food, stopping points)
Eating with others (familiar vs unfamiliar)
Eating distractions (initiate, obscure or extend consumption/ script-related eating)


What is the most effective diet?

Any diet will work if you stick to it.


How are resting metabolic rate and total energy expenditure estimated?

Estimating resting metabolic rate (RMR)
○ Harris-Benedict equation and Mifflin-St. Jeor equation
○ Indirect calorimetry - Can use handheld machines to give a clearer estimation of our calorie needs
To measure total energy expenditure, multiply the RMR by your activity factor.


Describe the following:
Low calorie diet

• Less expensive, similar efficacy to VLCD
• 1200-1500kcal/day
○ 500-600kcal fewer/day
○ Weight loss of 0.5kg/week is a healthy rate (1-2lbs/week is healthy)
• Replace high calorie foods with less energy-dense foods


describe a very low calorie diet

Less than or equal to 800kcal/day
• Supervised (medically)
• BMI greater than or equal to 30 are the people who are targeted
• Not individualized
○ Regardless of what your calorie needs are (depending on weight, height, age, activity level), people normally start the diet at around 800 calories


describe a meal replacement

• Nutrition and portion control
• 180-300kcal/serving
• 2 meal replacements, 1 meal
• Pre-packaged, portion-controlled, calorie-labelled food
• Taste and price should be considered


What is a fad diet?

no real scientific evidence
A catchy name
Key words are used to draw people in: “100% effective”
Sometimes presented in phases. Eg. Phase 1, you eat only 1 food. Phase 2, you eat that food and introduce one more food.


What is the AMDR for fats, proteins, and carbohydrates?

○ Protein = 10-35%
○ Fats = 20-35%
○ Carbohydrates = 45-65%


What are glycemic index and glycemic load?

GI: Reference point of how much glucose is in a food, and this is important because we want to know how much the food will raise our blood sugar. GI is controversial because it's effected by many things. If everyone ate the same thing, all of our blood sugars will not spike to the exact same point. It also matters what we eat our foods with. If I ate a plate of potatoes with a steak and a salad, it will be different than if we just ate a plate of potatoes. Glycemic load is more useful!

GL: Taking GI one step further. We take the glycemic index number and multiply it by the serving size. GI is based on 50g of food regardless of what the food is. Glycemic load compares GI to how much we are eating.


Describe the following diets and provide an example:
Very low fat

• Less than 10% calories coming from fat
• Low vitamin E, B12, calcium, and zinc is common in low fat diets
• "Low-fat" and "non-fat"
• Eg Pritikin Diet


describe the following diet and provide an example: very low carbohydrates

• Consume less than 20% of calories in our diet
• Don't differentiate fats
• Limited nutrient content and balance
• E.g Atkins Diet


describe the following diet and provide an example: moderate fat/moderate carbohydrates

• 40-50% carbs
○ Emphasis =high fire
• 20-30% fat
• Very broad category
• Eg. Zone diet and South Beach Diet
The majority of diets fall into this category. These diets have some sort of “key” or “twist” to them (as compared to science-based diets)


describe the following diet and provide an example:Science-based moderate carbohydrate/moderate fat

Mostly high-fiber, high unsaturated fat diets. High unsaturated fat works because it is balanced with fiber. Involves a lot of plant-based foods.


What is the difference between physical activity and exercise?

• Physical activity
○ Any movement that results in skeletal muscle contraction and noticeable increases in energy expenditure
• Exercise
○ Planned, structured, repetitive bodily movement
○ Goal is to improve or maintain physical fitness


What is NEAT?

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
• NEAT often overlooked
• Accounts for 15-50% of total energy expenditure
• Moderate lifestyle activities provide same benefit as vigorous exercise


What role does physical activity play regarding weight loss and maintenance?

Effects of Physical Activity on Weight:
• Prevention of Weight Gain
○ Modest activity prevents weight gain
○ 15-30 minutes/day = 1-1.5 miles = 200-3000steps
• Initial weight loss
○ Physical activity and calorie restriction
Burn 500-1000 calories, walk 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hour walk

Weight Loss Maintenance
• Prevent weight regain
• Maintains lean muscle
• Added benefits


Provide an example of each of the following measures of physical activity:
Criterion methods

○ Gold standard most accurate measures - most expensive, most inaccessible
○ Doubly labeled water - drink water that has some isotopes in it. Measure output through urine or saliva, and use that as a measurement for basal metabolic rate and energy expenditure
○ Indirect calorimetry - air. Person expires are from the lungs into a machine. This measures oxygen and CO2 output. Those will be used to measure physical activity levels


Provide an example of each of the following measures of physical activity:
objective measures

Objective measures - things we will most often use. They are fairly simple
○ Pedometers
○ Accelerometers - more expensive. Measures changes in motion
○ Heart rate monitors


Provide an example of each of the following measures of physical activity:
subjective measures

• Diaries
• Interviews
• Questionnaires
• 7-day PAR (physical activity recall), PACE, SQUASH.
• For seniors - CHAMPS, PASE, YPAS


Describe the transtheoretical model

○ Pre-contemplation
○ Contemplation
○ Preparation
○ Action
○ Maintenance
It is a non-linear model to explain the different stages a person can be in relating to behaviour change.


Briefly explain the following:
Social cognitive theory

Psychosocial, environmental, behavioural
• Self-efficacy
The theory posits that learning occurs in a social context with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior.