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Flashcards in APA Final Deck (90)
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1

what are four aging theories

1. evolutionary theories of living and longevity
2. programmed theories
3. damage theories
4. beyond molecular biology of aging

2

what are the three categories of damage theories

individual mechanisms
general formulations
stress-induced premature senescence

3

what is the aging process

proves occurring with the passage of time, leading to loss of adaptability or full function, and eventually to death

4

what are the two types of aging

pathogeric
eugeric

5

what is pathogeric aging

pathological aging
not a predestined part of aging

6

what is eugeric aging

'true' aging
age related changes that will happen to everyone, inevitable

7

what are the three aging loss of functional capacity

1. disuse/ overuse (reduced physical activity)
2. age-related causes
3. disease

8

all the cells, organs and systems of the human body ____ at different rates and differently in each person

age

9

physiological and biomechanical changes due to aging

eugeric aging

10

what type of aging is arthritis

eugeric

11

what is arthritis [3]

- disease causing pain and loss of movement of the joints
- due to trauma or 'wear and tear'
- word arthritis means joint inflammation

12

what is the onset of osteoporosis

- thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time
- osteoporosis means bones that are hollow

13

what three parts of the neuron decrease nerve conduction velocity due to loss of

myelin
dendrites
neurotransmitters

14

what are the two acuity of senses that decrease with age

vision
hearing

15

what does aging affect in vision

- glaucoma: increase in the internal pressure of the eye
-presbyopia: ability to see/accommodate nearby images clearly

16

what does aging affect in hearing

-presbycusis: loss of hearing sensitivity due to degeneration of middle [ear drum] and inner ear
-30-75% of adults between 65 and 75 years og age have a hearing loss
- may affect the ability to hear the nearby ringing of a telephone, but not low pitched sound of a truck rumbling down the street

17

what is glaucoma

increase in the internal pressure of the eye

18

what is presbyopia

ability to see/accommodate nearby images clearly

19

what is presbycusis

loss of hearing sensitivity due to degeneration of middle [ear drum] and inner ear

20

aging muscle, what change with age?

morphology of the muscle
overall functional strength

21

what is morphology of the muscle

cross sectional area
number of fibers
fiber type

22

what are the two types of skeletal muscle fibres

fast twitch [type 2]
slow twitch [type 1]

23

anaerobic exercises use ____ twitch fibres

fast

24

aerobic exercises use ____ twitch fibers

slow

25

what are the 6 roles of exercise in extending longevity

- physical deterioration
- increasing age
- less exercise
- further decrease in physical activity
- decreased physical abilities

26

what is the role of skeletal muscle and exercise in extending longevity

- of all the tissues, they are the most positively affected
- decreases in muscle mass can be slowed, and adequate blood supple is available

27

what is the role of bone and exercise in extending longevity

-bones age primarily because of loss of mineral content - making bone weaker and more brittle
-increasing bone density in early years decreases the risks associated with loss of mineral in later years [women]
- EXERCISE GENERALLY CANNOT REVERSE THE PROCESS, BUT IT CAN SLOW IT DOWN

28

what is the role of joints and exercise in extending longevity

- deterioration of cartilage & tendons elasticity
- decrease in collagen causes cartilage fragmentation
- synovial fluid thins and loses its hydraulic abilities
- EXERCISE GENERALLY CANNOT REVERSE THE PROCESS, AND LIKELY IT CONTRIBUTES TO THE PROBLEMS

29

with exercise aerobic capacity increases - although with aging still ____

declines

30

exercise with aging affect cardiac output

increase stroke volume