Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Injuries 2- midterm Deck (182)
what is the lower quadrant scan?
a scanning examination is used to determine if we are dealing with a lower quadrant problem or spinal injury
what does soap stand for?
give an example of special question regarding safety
what are the spinal cord signs and symptoms (3)
1. blow and bladder dysfunction
2. bilateral or quadrilateral paresthesia
3. hyper-reflexia below level of lesion
Approx at what level does the spinal cord end?
what is considered the horses tail?
what are cauda equina signs and symptoms?
1. saddle area anesthesia (insensitive to pain)
2. bowl and bladder dysfunction
3. hypo-reflexia or a-reflexia
4. positive dural signs
when do you test for end feel?
if the client has gone through active ROM with no pain
what is an end feel?
different sensations are imparted to the hand at the extremes of range, this sensation is defined as the end feel
what are the 6 types of end feel?
1. bone to bone end feel
2. spasm end feel
3. capsular end feel
4. springy block end feel
5. soft tissue approximation end feel
6. empty end feel
what is bone to bone end feel?
an abrupt halt to the movement when tow hard surfaces hit
ex. elbow extension
what is spasm end feel?
a sudden stop or the sensation of vibrant twang (elastic) to passive movement
often accompanied by pain
a protective mechanism the body uses to prevent further injury
what is capsular end feel?
a sensation like a thick piece of leather is being stretched
what is springy block end feel?
a rebound sensation is felt
indicates internal articular displacement or internal derangement by me present
what is soft tissue approximation end feel?
joint cannot be pushed any further because one part of the body hits another.
ex. elbow flexion (biceps)
what is empty end feel?
movement causes considerable pain before the extreme of the range is reached
indicates a very serious pathology, acute bursitis or a symptom magnifier
what is the squat test used to clear?
quick clearing test for the lower extremities
if positive it may suggest it is not a spinal problem and peripheral joint assessment is the next step
what level does the knee jerk reflex test?
what level does the Achilles tendon reflex test?
what is a dermatome?
an area of skin supplied by a single nerve root
how do you test for altered nerve conduction?
by assessing pain, temperature or light touch over the area of the skin
what is a myotome?
a muscle group that is predominantly supplies by a single spinal nerve
how do you test myotomes?
test for fatigue, strength and endurance in the particular muscle group
myotomes- what level would you test hip flexion and what muscle
myotomes- what level would you test knee extension and what muscle
myotomes- what level would you test for ankle dorsiflexion and what muscle?
myotomes- what level would you test for extension of D1 (big toe) and what muslce
extensor hallucis longus
myotomes- what level would you test for ankle plantar flexion & ankle eversion and what muscle?
S1 -plantar flexion
S1- Ankle eversion
myotomes- what level would you test with knee flexion and muscle?