Musculoskeletal Injuries 2- midterm Flashcards Preview

My Library > Musculoskeletal Injuries 2- midterm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Injuries 2- midterm Deck (182)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is the lower quadrant scan?

a scanning examination is used to determine if we are dealing with a lower quadrant problem or spinal injury

2

what does soap stand for?

subjective
objective
analysis
plan

3

give an example of special question regarding safety

general health
medications

4

what are the spinal cord signs and symptoms (3)

1. blow and bladder dysfunction
2. bilateral or quadrilateral paresthesia
3. hyper-reflexia below level of lesion

5

Approx at what level does the spinal cord end?

L1-L2

6

what is considered the horses tail?

cauda equina

7

what are cauda equina signs and symptoms?

1. saddle area anesthesia (insensitive to pain)
2. bowl and bladder dysfunction
3. hypo-reflexia or a-reflexia
4. positive dural signs

8

when do you test for end feel?

if the client has gone through active ROM with no pain

9

what is an end feel?

different sensations are imparted to the hand at the extremes of range, this sensation is defined as the end feel

10

what are the 6 types of end feel?

1. bone to bone end feel
2. spasm end feel
3. capsular end feel
4. springy block end feel
5. soft tissue approximation end feel
6. empty end feel

11

what is bone to bone end feel?

an abrupt halt to the movement when tow hard surfaces hit
ex. elbow extension

12

what is spasm end feel?

a sudden stop or the sensation of vibrant twang (elastic) to passive movement
often accompanied by pain
a protective mechanism the body uses to prevent further injury

13

what is capsular end feel?

a sensation like a thick piece of leather is being stretched

14

what is springy block end feel?

a rebound sensation is felt
indicates internal articular displacement or internal derangement by me present

15

what is soft tissue approximation end feel?

joint cannot be pushed any further because one part of the body hits another.
ex. elbow flexion (biceps)

16

what is empty end feel?

movement causes considerable pain before the extreme of the range is reached
indicates a very serious pathology, acute bursitis or a symptom magnifier

17

what is the squat test used to clear?

quick clearing test for the lower extremities
if positive it may suggest it is not a spinal problem and peripheral joint assessment is the next step

18

what level does the knee jerk reflex test?

L3-L4

19

what level does the Achilles tendon reflex test?

S1-S2

20

what is a dermatome?

an area of skin supplied by a single nerve root

21

how do you test for altered nerve conduction?

by assessing pain, temperature or light touch over the area of the skin

22

what is a myotome?

a muscle group that is predominantly supplies by a single spinal nerve

23

how do you test myotomes?

test for fatigue, strength and endurance in the particular muscle group

24

myotomes- what level would you test hip flexion and what muscle

L1-L2
iliopsoas

25

myotomes- what level would you test knee extension and what muscle

L3
Quadriceps femoris

26

myotomes- what level would you test for ankle dorsiflexion and what muscle?

L4
Tibialis anterior

27

myotomes- what level would you test for extension of D1 (big toe) and what muslce

L5
extensor hallucis longus

28

myotomes- what level would you test for ankle plantar flexion & ankle eversion and what muscle?

S1 -plantar flexion
gastrocnemius
S1- Ankle eversion
Peroneii

29

myotomes- what level would you test with knee flexion and muscle?

S2
hamstrings

30

what is the clonus test?

the rthythmic and rapid alternating contraction and relaxation of a muscle brought on by a sudden passive tendon stretching
- can be tested on ankle wrist or patella
- positive test suggest an upper motor neuron lesion